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The Surprising Reason Neil Armstrong — And Not Buzz Aldrin — Was The First Person On The Moon

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Apollo 11

Sunday, July 20, marks the 45th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing, when American astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first person ever to plant boots on the dusty lunar surface. Buzz Aldrin followed about 20 minutes later. 

Most people assume that NASA always planned for Armstrong to be the first person to step out onto the moon because of his rank. Armstrong was commander of Apollo 11 and Aldrin was the lunar module pilot. Michael Collins stayed behind in lunar orbit as command module pilot. 

In a recent Reddit AMA, Aldrin, now 84, admitted that he, as the junior person, actually vied for the spot to be first man on the moon.

"In all previous missions, if someone, a crew member, was to spacewalk, it was always the junior person, not the space commander who would stay inside," Aldrin said. "I felt that there was an obligation on my part to put forth the reasons why a commander who had been burdened down with an enormous amount of responsibility and training for activities [should stay inside]."

Aldrin noted that at least one team at NASA supported his argument for why the junior person should step outside first, leaving the more senior person safely behind the controls and in a better position to take action in an emergency. 

"But," Aldrin explains, "many people felt the great symbology of the commander from past expeditions or arrivals at a destination." So Armstrong climbed down the ladder first. However, Aldrin notes that once both astronauts were outside the lunar module their roles became more ambiguous even though Armstrong was the de facto leader of the mission. 

Aldrin writes:

The decision that was made was absolutely correct as far as who went out first, symbolically. However who was in charge of the what happened after both people are outside, I believe, could have been done differently. I was not the commander, I was a junior person, so once both [we] were outside, I followed my leader, because we (NASA) had not put together detailed jobs of people outside. I believe it could have been improved. But it was very successful for what it was. And the decision wasn't up to me, or Neil, it was up to people much higher up in NASA.

NASA's history website, "Apollo Expeditions to the Moon," tells a slightly different version of the story. The agency originally predicted that Aldrin would be the first man to step on the moon, but the lunar module posed logistical challenges that made this order impossible. The hatch opened on the opposite side where Aldrin was seated. "For Aldrin to get out first it would have been necessary for one bulky-suited, back-packed astronaut to climb over another," NASA wrote. "When that movement was tried, it damaged the LM mockup."

Deke Slayton, the astronauts' boss, said allowing Armstrong to walk first was a basic protocol change. "I figured the commander ought to be the first guy out," he said. "I changed it as soon as I found they had the time line that showed Aldrin getting out first."  The first director of NASA's Manned Spacecraft, Bob Gilruth, approved the decision, Slayton is quoted as saying.

In the same account, Armstrong said he was never asked by the higher-ups if he wanted to be the first man out and the decision was not based on rank. "Did Armstrong pull rank, as was widely assumed? Absolutely not, said Slayton," NASA writes. According to the historical account, Aldrin later wrote ( half-convincingly): "It was fine with me if it was to be Neil."

SEE ALSO: Buzz Aldrin Describes His 'UFO' Encounter During Apollo 11

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What Happens When You Go To TGI Fridays For Endless Appetizers And Stay 14 Hours

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mozzarella sticks

TGI Fridays is running a new promotion for "Endless Appetizers." 

The $10 deal gets you unlimited portions of one appetizer, such as potato skins, buffalo wings, or mozzarella sticks. 

Caity Weaver at Gawker decided to see how much she could get out of the deal. 

Weaver decided to go to a Brooklyn TGI Fridays when it opened and stay until closing time, ordering only the "Endless Appetizer" deal. She describes the entire experience in hilarious detail. 

Weaver alerted her server to the plan right away and ordered mozzarella sticks. 

The problem? She didn't like them. 

"I would prefer to stop eating after the first one. I seriously regret not getting the potato skins," she writes. 

The waitstaff cooperated with her plan and continued to bring her plates of the breaded, fried cheese, though she was occasionally ignored for up to an hour.  

But Weaver writes that the cheese sticks kept coming — and each one tasted more disgusting than the last. 

She describes the taste as "flat, and greasy, and congealed."

After 14 hours at the restaurant, Weaver consumed seven orders of mozzarella sticks. This would have cost her about $55 without the promotion. 

Weaver's experience is what TGI Fridays is counting on — customers quickly getting sick of what they ordered. 

Read her funny, minute-by-minute account at Gawker

SEE ALSO: See Which Restaurant CEOs Make The Most Money

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Filmmaker And His Son Spend An Extremely Weird Night In Germany's Giant Indoor Water Park

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Screen Shot 2014 07 18 at 12.46.20 PM

One of the stranger tourist attractions in Germany has to be Tropical Islands Resort, a massive water park built in an old Soviet airplane hangar outside Berlin.

The resort has been open since 2004, and attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors each year.

Indie filmmaker Casey Neistat and his son recently had an overnight adventure at the park, which bills itself as a tropical getaway. The resulting video is hilarious.

Keep reading for a glimpse of what it's like to hang out in Germany's weirdest amusement park.

Tropical Islands is a 45-minute drive from Berlin, in an old airship hangar called the Aerium. Neistat and his son Owen turn a corner, and the hulking building suddenly comes into view.Jul 18, 2014 12:31Swim trunks? Check. Sunglasses? Check. Towels? Check.casey neistatThis place is seriously enormous. At 194 million cubic feet, it's one of the world's largest buildings, by volume. Tropical Islands inside Berlin aircraft hangarIt's open 365 days a year, 24 hours a day. And it attracts everyone people of all ages.Jul 18, 2014 12:33There are dozens of water slides, lagoons, and pools, as well as a rainforest and shopping boulevard. As Neistat notes, this trip was his son's idea.Jul 18, 2014 12:40Still, it's a pretty good place for a father and son to hang out.Jul 18, 2014 12:29Tropical Islands has Germany's highest water slide tower, with 4 slides and 110 steps. It's a monster.Jul 18, 2014 12:37Neistat also shows us the dark side of Tropical Islands. At one point, he wonders why a chicken is freely walking around the grounds. And there are cockroaches everywhere, he says.Screen Shot 2014 07 18 at 12.38.14 PMAs night approaches, the park gets a little creepy. People can actually vacation here: There are two hundred rooms in the dome, as well as dozens of tents in the "rainforest."Tropical Islands inside Berlin aircraft hangarNeistat and his son find themselves wandering the dark, empty grounds at 2 a.m., totally unsupervised. It's the perfect opportunity for a late night swim.Jul 18, 2014 12:44Finally, morning arrives. The food? "Just terrible."Screen Shot 2014 07 18 at 12.45.40 PMThe video is worth a watch in its entirety:

NOW TAKE A TOUR: There's A Giant Tropical Resort Inside This Old Soviet Airplane Hangar

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This Chart Shows That Americans Like Jews More Than Christians

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The Pew Research Center's new American Trends Panel conducted a study on how America views the various religions present in the U.S. 

The chart below shows the results from the survey of 3,217 adults on a graduated vertical scale. Jews take the top spot while Muslims land at the very bottom.

U.S. Public Has Warmest Feelings for Jews, Catholics and Evangelicals

 

Interestingly, America, considered a Christian nation, has warmer feelings toward Jews than Catholics and Evangelical Christians, according to the study. And respondents favored no religion at all over Islam. 

Buddhist, Hindus, and Mormons received fairly neutral ratings. 

Pew notes that religious groups tend to feel more positive toward people of their own religion. Catholics, for example, received a rating of around 80 on a scale of 0-100 from other Catholics  — but 58 from non-Catholics.

Business Insider's Andy Kiersz already broke down the study more in-depth

SEE ALSO: The Largest Religion In Every State Other Than Christianity

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Meet The Richest Tech Tycoon In 14 Major Countries Around The World

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Hasso Plattner SAP

Bill Gates, Larry Ellison, and Jeff Bezos are among some of the wealthiest tech tycoons here in the U.S. 

But there are plenty of extremely wealthy tech executives across the globe who are making major contributions to their country's tech scenes.

With the help of Forbes' Billionaires List, we've rounded up the wealthiest tech tycoon in 14 countries across the globe. They've each played a major role in technological advances around the world, and they've raked in billions doing it.

Brazil: Eduardo Saverin

Net worth: $4.3 billion

Forbes ranking: 375

Background: Eduardo Saverin became a billionaire after cofounding Facebook with Mark Zuckerberg. He was born in Brazil but attended school in the U.S. before renouncing his American citizenship and moving to Singapore in 2012. He still owns about 53 million shares of Facebook stock and spends his time as an angel investor.



Canada: David Cheriton

Net worth: $3.1 billion

Forbes ranking: 578

Background: Vancouver native David Cheriton, a professor in Stanford's computer science department, became one of the first investors in Google after Larry Page and Sergey Brin did a demo of their project on his front porch in 1998. That early investment has obviously paid off, but Cheriton doesn't like to flaunt his wealth. He also cofounded Arista Networks with Andy Bechtolsheim. 



China: Ma Huateng

Net worth: $14.4 billion

Forbes ranking: 78 

Background: Ma Huateng is the founder and CEO of Tencent, China's largest publicly traded Internet company. Tencent created the mobile messaging app WeChat, which now has more than 270 million users. Ma is now the second-wealthiest person in China. 



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Leona Helmsley's Former Greenwich Estate Can Be Yours For $65 Million

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helm1

The Greenwich, Conn. estate of the late Leona Helmsley, the hotel tycoon who earned the nickname "Queen of Mean," is on the market for $65 million, according to Christie's International Real Estate, which is selling the home.

The estate last sold for $35 million to an undisclosed buyer in 2010, who made major renovations and put it back on the market, reports The Wall Street Journal. It was originally built in 1918, and now has 17,000 square feet with 9 bedrooms and 11 bathrooms.

The mansions has iron gates and a winding stone driveway lined by trees. It sits on 4o acres of land, and has two additional cottages and garage space for up to six cars.

The home has a beautiful brick exterior.



It sits on 40 acres and is elevated 600 feet from the ground.



You can sit on this patio and enjoy views in nearly every direction.



See the rest of the story at Business Insider






This 'Slow' Coffee Will Give You The Ultimate Caffeine Buzz In The Morning

I Made $15 Million Before I Was 30, And It Wasn't As Awesome As You'd Think

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wealthy rich top hot grass ascotEditor's note: An anonymous user on Quora posted this insightful answer to the question "Is getting rich worth it?" While we can't confirm the identity of the user, the answer is definitely worth a read.

I made $15 million in my mid-20s after I sold a tech startup. I talked to a lot of people about this question, and thought a lot about how to stay the same person I was before and after making money.

Here's my answer: being rich is better than not being rich, but it's not nearly as good as you imagine it is.

The answer why is a bit more complicated.

First, one of the only real things being rich gives you is that you don't have to worry about money as much anymore. There will still be some expenses that you cannot afford (and you will wish you could), but most expenses can be made without thinking about what it costs. This is definitely better, without a doubt.

Being rich does come with some downsides, though. The first thing you are thinking reading that, is, "cry me a river". That is one of the downsides. You are not allowed to complain about anything, ever. Since most people imagine being rich as nirvana, you are no longer allowed to have any human needs or frustrations in the public eye. Yet, you are still a human being, but most people don't treat you like one.

There's the second downside. Most people now want something out of you, and it can be harder to figure out whether someone is being nice to you because they like you, or they are being nice to you because of your money. If you aren't married yet, good luck trying to figure out (and/or always having self doubt) about whether a partner is into you or your money.

Then you have friends & family. Hopefully your relationship with them doesn't sour, but it can get harder. Both can get really weird about it and start to treat you differently. They might come and ask for a loan (bad idea: if you give, always give a gift). One common problem is that they don't appreciate Christmas presents the way that they used to, and they can get unrealistic expectations for how large a present should be and be disappointed when you don't meet their unrealistic expectations. You have to start making decisions for your parents on what does and does not cost too much, and frankly, it's awkward.

Add all of these up and you can start to feel a certain sense of isolation.

You sometimes lay awake at night, wondering if you made the right investment decisions, whether it might all go away. You know that feeling standing on a tall building, the feeling you might lose your mind and jump? Sometimes you're worried that you might lose your mind and spend it all.

The next thing you need to understand about money is this: all of the things you picture buying, they are only worthwhile to you because you cannot afford them (or have to work really hard to acquire them). Maybe you have your eye on a new Audi — once you can easily afford it, it just doesn't mean as much to you anymore.

Everything is relative, and you are more or less powerless to that. Yes, the first month you drive the Audi, or eat in a fancy restaurant, you really enjoy it. But then you sort of get used to it. And then you are looking towards the next thing, the next level up. And the problem is that you have reset your expectations, and everything below that level doesn't get you quite as excited anymore.

This happens to everyone. Good people can maintain perspective, actively fight it, and stay grounded. Worse people complain about it and commit general acts of douchebaggery. But remember this: it would happen to you, too, even though you might not think so. You'll just have to trust me on this one.

Most people hold the illusion that if only they had more money, their life would be better and they would be happier. Then they get rich, and that doesn't happen, and it can throw them into a serious life crisis.

If you're part of the middle class, you have just as many opportunities to do with your life what you want of it. If you're not happy now, you won't be happy because of money.

Whether you're rich or not, make your life what you want it to be, and don't use money as an excuse. Go out there, get involved, be active, pursue your passion, and make a difference.


NOW WATCH: The Full Story Of Elon Musk Is More Awesome Than You Realize

 

SEE ALSO: 12 Surprising Downsides Of Getting Rich

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VOTE NOW: What Are The World's Best Business Schools?

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harvard business school graduationIs an MBA costing two years of your life and $150,000 or more really worth it?

The question is more controversial than ever, with cheaper online degree programs growing rapidly as well as free online business courses providing important skills. Given powerful new technology and fundraising techniques, it may also be easier to start a business than ever. But with increasing global competition and a tough job market, business school may hold the key to getting ahead, providing specialized knowledge, valuable contacts, and an impressive resume booster.

Of course, choosing the right business school makes all the difference.

For Business Insider's annual ranking, we are surveying the people who matter most: professionals in diverse fields who have MBAs or who have experience hiring or managing MBAs. If you have these qualifications, then please take our survey below. We will filter the survey based on qualifications of respondents to obtain the optimum sample.

Our survey asks several general questions about business school as well as the big question: which schools will really help your career.

SEE ALSO: Check out last year's full list of the World's Best Business Schools

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There's A New Oyster Bar On A Historic Ship Docked The Hudson, And It's Awesome

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Grand Banks Oyster Bar Boat NYC

The newly opened Grand Banks isn't your average oyster bar.

For starters, the restaurant  the latest from Diner and Marlow & Sons co-founder Mark Firth plans to sail south during the winter, according to The New York Times.

Moored at Pier 25 in Tribeca, Grand Banks is built into the historic F/V Sherman Zwicker, a schooner that launched in 1942, fished the North Atlantic, and sailed to South America to trade goods.

Now, it serves delicious oysters, cocktails, and beer, and is already wildly popular since it opened in June. We went aboard to check it out.

Grand Banks is anchored in the Hudson River, at the end of Pier 25 in Tribeca. The ship is 142 feet long, making it the largest wooden vessel in New York City and one of the largest on the East Coast.



The ship has great views of Manhattan and the Statue of Liberty, as well as New Jersey (if you're into that type of thing).



You'll also get a prime view of the Freedom Tower.



See the rest of the story at Business Insider






22 Lessons From Stephen King On How To Be A Great Writer

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stephen king

Renowned author Stephen King writes stories that captivate millions of people around the world and earn him an estimated $17 million a year.

In his memoir, "On Writing," King shares valuable insights into how to be a better writer. And he doesn't sugarcoat it. He writes, "I can't lie and say there are no bad writers. Sorry, but there are lots of bad writers."

Don't want to be one of them? Here are 22 great pieces of advice from King's book on how to be an amazing writer:

1. Stop watching television. Instead, read as much as possible.

If you're just starting out as a writer, your television should be the first thing to go. It's "poisonous to creativity," he says. Writers need to look into themselves and turn toward the life of the imagination.

To do so, they should read as much as they can. King takes a book with him everywhere he goes, and even reads during meals. "If you want to be a writer, you must do two things above all others: read a lot and write a lot," he says. Read widely, and constantly work to refine and redefine your own work as you do so.

2. Prepare for more failure and criticism than you think you can deal with.

King compares writing fiction to crossing the Atlantic Ocean in a bathtub, because in both, "there's plenty of opportunity for self-doubt." Not only will you doubt yourself, but other people will doubt you, too. "If you write (or paint or dance or sculpt or sing, I suppose), someone will try to make you feel lousy about it, that's all," writes King.

Oftentimes, you have to continue writing even when you don't feel like it. "Stopping a piece of work just because it's hard, either emotionally or imaginatively, is a bad idea," he writes. And when you fail, King suggests that you remain positive. "Optimism is a perfectly legitimate response to failure." 

3. Don't waste time trying to please people.

According to King, rudeness should be the least of your concerns. "If you intend to write as truthfully as you can, your days as a member of polite society are numbered anyway," he writes. King used to be ashamed of what he wrote, especially after receiving angry letters accusing him of being bigoted, homophobic, murderous, and even psychopathic.

By the age of 40, he realized that every decent writer has been accused of being a waste of talent. King has definitely come to terms with it. He writes, "If you disapprove, I can only shrug my shoulders. It's what I have." You can't please all of your readers all the time, so King advises that you stop worrying. 

4. Write primarily for yourself.

You should write because it brings you happiness and fulfillment. As King says, "I did it for the pure joy of the thing. And if you can do it for joy, you can do it forever."

Writer Kurt Vonnegut provides a similar insight: "Find a subject you care about and which you in your heart feel others should care about," he says. "It is this genuine caring, not your games with language, which will be the most compelling and seductive element in your style."

5. Tackle the things that are hardest to write.

"The most important things are the hardest things to say," writes King. "They are the things you get ashamed of because words diminish your feelings." Most great pieces of writing are preceded with hours of thought. In King's mind, "Writing is refined thinking."

When tackling difficult issues, make sure you dig deeply. King says, "Stories are found things, like fossils in the ground ... Stories are relics, part of an undiscovered pre-existing world." Writers should be like archaeologists, excavating for as much of the story as they can find.

6. When writing, disconnect from the rest of the world.

Writing should be a fully intimate activity. Put your desk in the corner of the room, and eliminate all possible distractions, from phones to open windows. King advises, "Write with the door closed; rewrite with the door open."

You should maintain total privacy between you and your work. Writing a first draft is "completely raw, the sort of thing I feel free to do with the door shut — it's the story undressed, standing up in nothing but its socks and undershorts."

7. Don't be pretentious.

"One of the really bad things you can do to your writing is to dress up the vocabulary, looking for long words because you're maybe a little bit ashamed of your short ones," says King. He compares this mistake to dressing up a household pet in evening clothes — both the pet and the owner are embarrassed, because it's completely excessive.

As iconic businessman David Ogilvy writes in a memo to his employees, "Never use jargon words like reconceptualize, demassification, attitudinally, judgmentally. They are hallmarks of a pretentious ass." Furthermore, don't use symbols unless necessary. "Symbolism exists to adorn and enrich, not to create an artificial sense of profundity," writes King.

8. Avoid adverbs and long paragraphs.

As King emphasizes several times in his memoir, "the adverb is not your friend." In fact, he believes that "the road to hell is paved with adverbs" and compares them to dandelions that ruin your lawn. Adverbs are worst after "he said" and "she said" — those phrases are best left unadorned.

You should also pay attention to your paragraphs, so that they flow with the turns and rhythms of your story. "Paragraphs are almost always as important for how they look as for what they say," says King. 

9. Don't get overly caught up in grammar.

According to King, writing is primarily about seduction, not precision. "Language does not always have to wear a tie and lace-up shoes," writes King. "The object of fiction isn't grammatical correctness but to make the reader welcome and then tell a story." You should strive to make the reader forget that he or she is reading a story at all.

10. Master the art of description.

"Description begins in the writer's imagination, but should finish in the reader's," writes King. The important part isn't writing enough, but limiting how much you say. Visualize what you want your reader to experience, and then translate what you see in your mind into words on the page. You need to describe things "in a way that will cause your reader to prickle with recognition," he says.

The key to good description is clarity, both in observation and in writing. Use fresh images and simple vocabulary to avoid exhausting your reader. "In many cases when a reader puts a story aside because it 'got boring,' the boredom arose because the writer grew enchanted with his powers of description and lost sight of his priority, which is to keep the ball rolling," notes King.

11. Don't give too much background information.

"What you need to remember is that there's a difference between lecturing about what you know and using it to enrich the story," writes King. "The latter is good. The former is not." Make sure you only include details that move your story forward and that persuade your reader to continue reading.

If you need to do research, make sure it doesn't overshadow the story. Research belongs "as far in the background and the back story as you can get it," says King. You may be entranced by what you're learning, but your readers are going to care a lot more about your characters and your story.

12. Tell stories about what people actually do.

"Bad writing is more than a matter of shit syntax and faulty observation; bad writing usually arises from a stubborn refusal to tell stories about what people actually do — to face the fact, let us say, that murderers sometimes help old ladies cross the street," writes King. The people in your stories are what readers care about the most, so make sure you acknowledge all the dimensions your characters may have.

13. Take risks; don't play it safe.

First and foremost, stop using the passive voice. It's the biggest indicator of fear. "I'm convinced that fear is at the root of most bad writing," King says. Writers should throw back their shoulders, stick out their chins, and put their writing in charge. 

"Try any goddamn thing you like, no matter how boringly normal or outrageous. If it works, fine. If it doesn't, toss it," King says.

14. Realize that you don't need drugs to be a good writer.

"The idea that the creative endeavor and mind-altering substances are entwined is one of the great pop-intellectual myths of our time," says King. In his eyes, substance-abusing writers are just substance-abusers. "Any claims that the drugs and alcohol are necessary to dull a finer sensibility are just the usual self-serving bullshit."

15. Don't try to steal someone else's voice.

As King says, "You can't aim a book like a cruise missile." When you try to mimic another writer's style for any reason other than practice, you'll produce nothing but "pale imitations." This is because you can never try to replicate the way someone feels and experiences truth, especially not through a surface-level glance at vocabulary and plot.

16. Understand that writing is a form of telepathy.

"All the arts depend upon telepathy to some degree, but I believe that writing is the purest distillation," says King. An important element of writing is transference. Your job isn't to write words on the page, but rather to transfer the ideas inside your head into the heads of your readers.

"Words are just the medium through which the transfer happens," says King. In his advice on writing, Vonnegut also recommends that writers "use the time of a total stranger in such a way that he or she will not feel the time was wasted."

17. Take your writing seriously.

"You can approach the act of writing with nervousness, excitement, hopefulness, or despair," says King. "Come to it any way but lightly." If you don't want to take your writing seriously, he suggests that you close the book and do something else. 

As writer Susan Sontag says, "The story must strike a nerve — in me. My heart should start pounding when I hear the first line in my head. I start trembling at the risk."

18. Write every single day.

"Once I start work on a project, I don't stop, and I don't slow down unless I absolutely have to," says King. "If I don't write every day, the characters begin to stale off in my mind ... I begin to lose my hold on the story's plot and pace."

If you fail to write consistently, the excitement for your idea may begin to fade. When the work starts to feel like work, King describes the moment as "the smooch of death." His best advice is to just take it "one word at a time."

19. Finish your first draft in three months. 

King likes to write 10 pages a day. Over a three-month span, that amounts to around 180,000 words. "The first draft of a book — even a long one — should take no more than three months, the length of a season," he says. If you spend too long on your piece, King believes the story begins to take on an odd foreign feel.

20. When you're finished writing, take a long step back.

King suggests six weeks of "recuperation time" after you're done writing, so you can have a clear mind to spot any glaring holes in the plot or character development. He asserts that a writer's original perception of a character could be just as faulty as the reader's.

King compares the writing and revision process to nature. "When you write a book, you spend day after day scanning and identifying the trees," he writes. "When you're done, you have to step back and look at the forest." When you do find your mistakes, he says that "you are forbidden to feel depressed about them or to beat up on yourself. Screw-ups happen to the best of us."

21. Have the guts to cut.

When revising, writers often have a difficult time letting go of words they spent so much time writing. But, as King advises, "Kill your darlings, kill your darlings, even when it breaks your egocentric little scribbler's heart, kill your darlings."

Although revision is one of the most difficult parts of writing, you need to leave out the boring parts in order to move the story along. In his advice on writing, Vonnegut suggests, "If a sentence, no matter how excellent, does not illuminate your subject in some new and useful way, scratch it out."

22. Stay married, be healthy, and live a good life.

King attributes his success to two things: his physical health and his marriage. "The combination of a healthy body and a stable relationship with a self-reliant woman who takes zero shit from me or anyone else has made the continuity of my working life possible," he writes.

It's important to have a strong balance in your life, so writing doesn't consume all of it. In writer and painter Henry Miller's 11 commandments of writing, he advises, "Keep human! See people, go places, drink if you feel like it."

SEE ALSO: This Stephen King Novel Will Never Be Printed Again After It Was Tied To School Shootings

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15 Things You Should Do Before You Turn 30

23 Daily Habits That Will Make You Smarter

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thought thinking light bulbGetting smarter isn't something that happens overnight. Instead, you have to build your intelligence every day through intentional daily habits.

In a recent Quora thread, "What would you do to be a little smarter every single day?", readers shared their advice on good habits you can establish.

Here are some simple actions that could help you become a smarter person.

1. Come up with 10 ideas every day.Think about how to reduce poverty, how to solve a daily problem you have, interesting movie ideas, or anything. It doesn't matter what subject your ideas fall into, as long as you're working your brain and your idea muscles. Your list might even lead to a new startup idea or writing subject. —Claudia Azula Altucher

2. Read the newspaper.It will help you become more aware of the important things happening around the word. You'll learn to form your own opinions and connect the dots between seemingly unrelated things. You'll also have a lot more to talk about at parties or with friends.Manas J Saloi

3. Play devil's advocate.Take something you recently learned and generate a unique opinion on it that wouldn't immediately come to mind. Try to support it with evidence, and be open to the idea that new evidence will change your opinion. Repeat this every day, and you'll become much better at thinking outside the box.

If you're feeling stuck, try reading and critically evaluating the editorial section of papers. They will help you understand how other people form arguments and express their opinions.Peter DePaulo

4. Read a chapter in a fiction or non-fiction book. Aim to read a book a week. You can always find pockets of time to read, whether on your daily commute or while you're waiting in line. Goodreads is a great way to keep track of everything you read and to also find a community of other readers.

Fiction books are great for understanding characters and getting absorbed into another perspective, while non-fiction books are great for introducing you to new topics, from politics to psychology. —Claudia Azula Altucher

5. Instead of watching TV, watch educational videos.Sometimes, it's more fun to watch things about a subject you love than to read about it, and you can learn a lot from other people's experiences.

You can find fun, educational videos on Khan Academy or watch TED talks. You can also find good ones on Youtube's channel SmarterEveryDay. In videos, the information is often presented in a digestible, memorable way, so you can be assured they'll stick. —Hendrik Sleeckx

6. Subscribe to feeds of interesting information. Follow interesting voices on Facebook and Twitter, so you'll always learn something new when you look at your newsfeed or dashboard. For example, if you want to keep up with the latest news in science and technology, subscribe to the "I Fucking Love Science" page on Facebook. You can also follow email newsletters, such as Cal Newport's Study Hacks and Today I Found Out.Saurabh Shah

7. Check in with your favorite knowledge sources.Every day, scroll through Quora, Stack Overflow, specialty blogs, or any other sources that satiate your hunger for knowledge. This is an extremely easy habit, because other users are curating the content for you, so all you have to do is follow the ones who write about topics interesting to you. Try using Pocket to save articles for later reading, and then try to get through them before going to sleep at night. —Manas J Saloi

8. Share what you learn with other people.If you find someone to debate and analyze ideas with, you can add to each other's knowledge and gain new perspectives. Also, when you can explain ideas to someone else, it means you've definitely mastered the concept. You can even share what you learn without directly talking to someone. Many people like to start blogs so they can engage others in online dialogue.Mike Xie

9. Make two lists: a list of work-related skills you want to learn now and a list for things you want to achieve in the future.Google Docs is a convenient way to keep track of your lists. For both, decide what you want to learn, compile sources that will teach you these skills, and then work on them each day.

For example, if you work in a computer-science related field, your first list might suggest you learn something new in Python one day or that you try using MongoDB another day.

For your second list, you can think about long-term goals, such as whether you want to go into marketing or architecture. Write down the small steps you need to take to reach that goal, whether it's by reading the experts in those fields or taking classes at a local college. —Manas J Saloi

10. Make an "I Did" list.At the end of each day, write down what you completed. This will help you feel better about all the things you accomplished, especially if you're feeling discouraged. It will also help you reflect on how productive you were and how you can re-structure your to-do lists for the next day. —Claudia Azula Altucher

11. Write down what you learn.You can start a blog or use an app like Inkpad to help you keep track of everything you learn. Not only will this be a great way to keep a record of everything you're doing, but it's also a good source of motivation to keep you accountable. You will want to learn more if you know that at the end of the day you'll have to write about it.Manas J Saloi

12. Stimulate your mind. Going on a daily run is a great way to get your brain flowing and to keep your mental health in shape. It's also a great way to think through difficult decisions or process new information.Rick Bruno

13. Take online courses. Check out this list of the most popular online courses for professionals. Make sure you don't overload yourself; commit to one to two and truly focus on them. The syllabi will also keep you on track, so you know you will be doing something every day, whether it's listening to a lecture or working on an assignment. Manas J Saloi

14. Talk to someone you find interesting.Even if they're strangers, don't be afraid to approach them. Ask about their interests and how they discovered them. Oftentimes, you learn the most from people you barely know. Manas J Saloi

15. Hang out with people who are smarter than you. Spend as much time as you can with smart people. Every day, you should strive to have a coffee date or walk with someone who inspires you.

Always be humble and willing to learn. Ask as many questions as possible. If you are always around people who are more knowledgeable than you, you'll have no choice but to learn more.Manas J Saloi

16. Follow your questions. If you see or hear about something cool, don't just let the moment pass. Follow up — pursue your curiosity and find the answer to your question. —Mike Xie

17. Use a word-of-the-day app. You will increase your vocabulary, which can help you in competitive tests like the SAT or GRE, or even just sound more eloquent in daily interactions.

You can also try to learn new vocabulary in a different language. Every day, try to add five to 10 more words to the foreign language you are trying to pursue. You can use LiveMocha, Basuu, or DuoLingo. Manas J Saloi

18. Do something scary."Getting out of our comfort zone always makes us wiser." Every day, push yourself a little further. Try public speaking by joining a ToastMasters class, lead a meeting by volunteering a proposal at work, or reach out to someone you really admire by sending a quick letter or email.Claudia Azula Altucher

19. Explore new areas. If you can't travel every day, at least try to find something new within your hometown. You'll meet different people, learn new facts, and understand something new about the world. It's a lot more productive than staying at home and watching TV. —Manas J Saloi

20. Play "smart" games. Some games, like chess and Scrabble, expand your mind. Challenge yourself when you play them. For example, play Scrabble without a dictionary. You can also solve puzzles via games like Sudoku, 2048, and Doors. —Saurabh Shah

21. Set aside some time to do nothing.Oftentimes, sitting in silence can help you get inspiration and reflect on your day. —Claudia Azula Altucher

22. Adopt a productive hobby. If you have something you can work on every day, from knitting to fly fishing, you can actively learn more just from doing. For instance, you may try to play a new piece of music every day, read a physics textbook, write a few more pages in your novel, or learn a new computer skill. Mayank Rajput

23. Apply what you learn.If you recently learned a new coding skill or how to play an instrument, make sure you are using that skill in your life as often as possible. Learning by doing is one of the most effective ways to become smarter. —Himanshu Pal


NOW WATCH: 7 Psychology Tricks To Influence People And Get Exactly What You Want

 

SEE ALSO: 19 Websites That Will Make You Smarter

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We Tried The 4 New Lay's Potato Chip Flavors — Here's The Verdict

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lays chips

Lay's just announced the four finalists for its "Do Us A Flavor" contest. 

The annual contests calls for submissions for a new Lay's flavor. One of the flavors will go national, and the winner receives $1 million. 

This year, the four finalists are Cappuccino, Mango Salsa, Bacon Cheddar Mac & Cheese, and Wasabi Ginger. 

We just tried the four flavors, which will be available in stores July 19. 

Our reviews below, ranked from worst to best. 

#4 MANGO SALSAmango salsa

Many who tried the mango salsa flavor expected something spicy, with a slight sweetness. People seemed more excited to try this chip than any of the others in the kitchen. 

The verdict? Unanimously awful.

"The mango salsa flavor are the worst things I've ever tasted in my entire life. I can't untaste those chips. I feel like a part of me has died," one of our reviewers said. 

Another tester said "the mango made me gag."

The sickly sweet flavor drew comparisons to fruity gum flavors. The savory salsa element was completely lacking and overpowered by the artificial fruit taste. 

"Someone should have emphasized the salsa part more," one person who tested the chips said. 

The wavy texture did nothing to distract from the taste. 

Take our word for it and skip these chips. You'll be happy you did.

#3 CAPPUCCINOlays cappuccino chips

This chip got the most publicity leading up to the release. There's nothing else quite like it on the market. 

The coffee flavor is overpowering when you bite into this chip. The taste, which was both bitter and sweet, drew comparisons to cereal. One taste tester called them "sticky sweet." 

The initial bitter taste of coffee made many of us cringe. 

Some reviewers said the chips felt more like a breakfast item than a salty snack.

"Thoroughly pointless as a snack; give me cookies or give me chips," one reviewer said. 

The aftertaste is similar to the one you get after drinking coffee. 

We'd skip the cappuccino flavor, though it isn't as bad as the mango.

#2 CHEDDAR BACON MAC & CHEESEcheddar bacon mac cheese lays

This chip received unanimously positive reviews. 

"I would probably eat a whole bag if it was placed in front of me," one person who tasted the chips said. 

Many people who tried these chips were surprised they don't actually contain real bacon.

The flavor is consistent and delicious. Neither the bacon nor cheese flavors are overpowering. 

In a word, these chips are addictive. 

Of the four options, Bacon Cheddar Mac & Cheese is definitely the crowd-pleaser. 

But the widespread appeal also made reviewers remark that it was "nothing spectacular" and "not trying very hard." 

"Who wouldn't want a chip that tasted like bacon mac and cheese?" one tester asked. 

Overall, these chips are good — just not original enough to be spectacular. 

#1 WASABI GINGERwasabi ginger lays

Everyone loved the Wasabi Ginger flavor. 

The chips are kettle-cooked, giving them a light and airy texture that melds with the Asian flavors. 

"By FAR the best!" one reviewer wrote. "Kept coming back for more." 

Another person who tasted the flavor said it "has an awesome kick to it moments after you bite into it."

"It's the chip with the biggest taste punch out of the four," the tester said. 

The spicy wasabi flavor was addictive, but the sweet ginger balances it out and keeps any spicy aftertaste away. 

These chips have a little bit of everything. They're savory, sweet, spicy, and salty. 

The flavor is also much more original than our other newsroom favorite, the cheddar bacon chip. 

The Wasabi Ginger flavor wins for originality and taste. We'd definitely recommend buying these chips. 

SEE ALSO: We Tried Taco Bell's Quesarito — Here's The Verdict

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Business Insider Is Hiring Paid Interns To Work In Its Brand New London Office

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Business Insider London Dina Spector

Business Insider is opening a newsroom in London this summer and we're immediately looking to hire paid interns! These talented folks will have the exciting opportunity to build a brand from the ground up.

As an intern at Business Insider, there's no getting coffee, filing, or making copies.

BI Interns spend their time doing meaningful work: researching, writing, pitching and producing features. You'll get an author byline for every post you write. 

We’re looking for interns who are ambitious, smart, funny, fast, and consume huge amounts of digital media. You should be comfortable working on multiple stories per day and building your own audience and personal brand through social media.

Qualified candidates will have experience writing for a news site with a focus in finance, tech, and politics. Light HTML and Photoshop experience also helps. Active on Twitter? Knowledge of social media is useful, too.

If you are interested in applying for a paid internship position at Business Insider U.K., please send your resume to Dina Spector [dspector@businessinsider.com]. In the body of the email, send a link to your CV on LinkedIn and describe in no more than five sentences why we should hire you.

And, please note: this internship requires that you live in the U.K. and work in our London office, located near the Old Street tube station. Interns are encouraged to work full-time (40 hours a week) for a six-month period from the start date.

SEE ALSO: Haven't seen our U.K. office yet? Check it out here

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How To Iron A Dress Shirt

This Architect-Designed Home In South Australia Generates Its Own Power And Clean Water

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dune 1

This house, called Dune, recently commended in the South Australia Architect Awards, creates its own electricity and collects its own water.

Three pavilions linked by a glass enclosed walkway cantilever dramatically out from a sand dune towards the sea. 

Sheltered courtyards and large sliding doors encourage outdoor living. 

Screen Shot 2014 07 21 at 6.06.03 AM

The pavilions have been placed to maximise exposure to the winter sun and to provide cross ventilation for summer cooling.

Raw concrete floors act as a heat sink in winter to capture the sun, with double glazing throughout.

Screen Shot 2014 07 21 at 6.06.17 AM

There’s no mechanical cooling and heating, provided by a small combustion heater, is rarely used.

“There are no services to the site,” says architect Max Pritchard

“Rainwater is collected for reuse, power is generated and waste water is treated on site.”

“The house is on the Yorke Peninsula but as our clients wish to remain completely private, we can’t be more specific about the location,” Pritchard said.

dune SNoonan_MPA_DuneHouse_09072013_031

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Here's How We Ranked The Best Restaurants In London

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Brett Graham, The Ledbury, London restaurant

We recently released our list of the Best Restaurants In London

To create this list, we looked at seven notable restaurant rankings compiled by food critics, diners, and experts.

The rankings we used were the National Restaurant Awards 2014The World's 100 Best RestaurantsZagat's Best Food In London 2013OpenTable's 2013 Best Restaurants in the UKTimeOut London's Top 50 RestaurantsThe Michelin Guide Great Britain and Ireland 2014, and The Square Meal's 3-Star Restaurants.

We gave each restaurant a numerical rating based on how many lists the restaurant appeared on and how high it appeared on lists that were ranked. Restaurants that appeared on multiple lists ranked higher on our list, while restaurants that ranked on only one of these lists ended up closer to the bottom. 

For the National Restaurant Awards 2014, which was ranked 1 to 100, we calculated the score by using the following formula: 101 - X (restaurant ranking) / 101. With this formula, the highest possible score is 0.99 and the lowest score is 0.

Because the World's 100 Best Restaurants looked at restaurants around the world and only five London restaurants made the list, we valued that list higher and gave each London restaurant that made the list a score of 0.75.

For the Zagat list, which was ranked 1 to 10, we calculated the score by using the following formula: 10 - X (restaurant ranking) / 10. With this formula, the highest possible score is 0.9 and the lowest score is 0.

Each time a restaurant appeared on the OpenTable list, we gave it a score of 0.25, since the restaurants on that list were not ranked.

Each time a restaurant appeared on the TimeOut London list, we gave it a score of 0.5, since the restaurants on that list were not ranked.

We also valued any Michelin stars awarded, since they are considered one of the most prestigious awards in the food world. Restaurants with one Michelin star received an additional 0.25 to their scores, restaurants with two Michelin stars received an additional 0.5, and restaurants with three stars received an additional 0.75.

We awarded an additional 0.25 to restaurants that made The Square Meal's list of 3-star restaurants since the list is not ranked, nor is it updated annually like the other rankings.

We then tallied up the scores to create the final ranking. Based on these calculations, the highest possible score would be 4.40 — but that would be incredibly difficult, considering that even the number one restaurant (The Ledbury) scored a 3.95.

Here is the spreadsheet showing our calculations (click to enlarge):

Best Restaurants In London FINAL CHART

NOW: Check out the full list of the Best Restaurants In London

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The 35 Best Restaurants In London

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the best restaurants in london 2014

If we're being honest, London hasn't always been known for its five-star dining options. But a recent culinary revolution has made it a standout destination for gourmands everywhere.

We've come up with this ultimate list of the best restaurants in London. To create it, we looked at notable restaurant rankings compiled by food critics, diners, and experts, and gave each restaurant a numerical rating based on our own formula.

The rankings we used were the National Restaurant Awards 2014, The World's 100 Best Restaurants, Zagat's Best Food In London 2013, OpenTable's 2013 Best Restaurants in the UK, TimeOut London's Top 50 Restaurants, The Michelin Guide Great Britain and Ireland 2014, and The Square Meal's 3-Star Restaurants.

You can read our complete methodology and see numerical scores here.

35. Social Eating House

58 Poland Street

Chef: Paul Hood

At Social Eating House, the surroundings are as vibrant as the food. Exposed brick walls, whitewashed copper ceilings, and weathered leather banquette seats create a relaxed and humble setting.

Guided by celebrity chef Jason Atherton, chef Paul Hood developed a diverse and contemporary bistro menu.



34. Chiltern Firehouse

1 Chiltern Street

Chefs: Nuno Mendes and Dale Osborne

Once London's first purpose-built fire station, the Chiltern Firehouse is quickly becoming "the place to be seen" for A-list celebrities like Kate Moss, Ellie Goulding, J.J. Abrams, and Cara Delevingne.

The Manhattan-style brasserie, owned by hotelier and nightlife guru André Balazs, boasts high ceilings and shockingly low prices.



33. The Wolseley

160 Piccadilly

Chef: Lawrence Keogh

A café-restaurant in the grand European tradition, The Wolseley occupies a 1921 car showroom turned Barclays Bank branch. The towering pillars, arches, and stairways have a haute menu to match. The veal Holstein and chicken soup with dumplings are runaway favorites as are the changing plats du jour. 



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How Rooftop Farms Yield 20 Times More Produce Than Traditional Farms

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As more and more people move to cities, the demand for access to fresher, more nutritious foods continues to rise. Brooklyn-based Gotham Greens builds greenhouses on urban rooftops. Inside the greenhouses, the company grows vegetables that don’t have to make the long journey most food makes from rural farms to cities.

In one location, the food only has to go as far as the Whole Foods directly below it.

This high-tech solution, though costly and subject to space limitations, is one of many approaches to urban agriculture being explored around the globe. And on a per-square-foot basis, its product yields could eclipse those produced by traditional farming methods.

SEE ALSO: Read more in this series.

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