For nearly 50 years, systematic racial suppression and segregation gripped South Africa. While the tides turned in the early '90s and laws were overturned, apartheid had already seeped into the country architecture. Roads, rivers, and fields functioned as "buffer zones" to separate people by race.
In 2016, photographer Johnny Miller set out to capture "the architecture of apartheid" from above. Separation gave the government the ability to reduce the black community's access to education, high-quality jobs, and city resources, leading to extreme divisions of wealth. Miller's drone pictures show the contrast as never seen before.
Miller shared some of his photos with us. You can check out more on his project website, Unequal Scenes.
Cape Town is a city like no other. "It's incredibly beautiful," Miller says, "and is the quintessential South African blend of first and third world."
Black people have been disenfranchised in the country for hundreds of years. Starting in 1948, apartheid protected racism under the law.
Apartheid also brought about labels to differentiate between nonwhite people from different origins. Black people came from the Eastern Cape and spoke Xhosa, while mixed-race people, called "colored," descended from slaves from Indonesia and Madagascar or were indigenous Khoisan people.
In the years following, black people were forcibly removed from their homes in rural areas and relocated into slums. The new developments were spaced apart to prevent people from unifying.
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