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Go Inside Mussolini's Secret Bunker That Hasn't Been Seen In 70 Years


Mussolini Bunker1

To mark the 70th anniversary of its liberation from fascism, Rome has reopened one of the bunkers built for Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. 

A series of bunkers were built under the Italian capital during World War II to provide shelter for bureaucrats and party leaders.

Bunker di Roma, a local website, has cataloged up to 12 different bunkers beneath the city and campaigned for their refurbishment so that tourists can visit them. 

Many of the bunkers, including Mussolini's personal air raid shelter, have not been entered since the end of the war, according to Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera. 

Mussolini was leader of the Italian fascist movement from 1923 to 1943. 

The bunker is located below Villa Torlonia, the Roman residence of Mussolini since 1922. It's just a short walk from the Colosseum.

The shelter could house up to 15 people in case of intense bombardment. It was never used, as Mussolini was ousted by his own private council on Sept. 8, 1943.

The bunker was outfitted with the most cutting-edge technologies of the time. It was designed to protect against a gas attack, as the sign in this picture says.

See the rest of the story at Business Insider

Scientists Have Figured Out What Makes Women Attractive

UK Architects Have Built An Amphibious Home That Floats During A Flood


house animation gif Baca architects amphibious home

A British design team has created an amphibious house that floats during times of flooding.

Baca Architects, specialists in waterfront architecture and flood-resilient aquatecture, have almost completed a home on the River Thames for a private client that is designed to rise with the water level and become buoyant.

It’s one of only a handful of amphibious homes around the world, according to Baca Architects.

Baca architects amphibious homeThe unique 2,400-square-foot home is located on an island just 33 feet from the stretch of the River Thames that passes through the town of Marlow in Buckinghamshire, which is a designated a Flood Zone 3B and Conservation Area.

Flood conditions here are probable, so it’s the perfect location for this amphibious home.

Baca architects amphibious homeThe way it works is that when the river levels rise, so do the island’s ground water levels. The light-weight timber home was built so that underneath the home is a concrete “dock” that fills gradually from the ground and gently raises the building with the water levels.

Baca architects amphibious homeThe home can float over 9 feet high on its own, well above the predicted flood levels and projected flood levels in the area.

But the home can’t just float away — there are specially designed guide posts or “dolphins” that extend 13 feet above the ground level so that the home is secured in the event of an even bigger flood.

Baca architects amphibious homeThe design team at Baca Architects does point out that because the house may not need to float for several years, it’s important for the owners to proactively test and maintain the base and lofting system.

Every five years, the dock will be pumped full of water to raise the house roughly 20 inches for a flotation test. The water will then be slowly released and the building can touch down again.

Apart from its ability to float, the house is modern, highly insulated, and water and energy saving. It has large windows that look out on the Thames, as well as a garden that acts as an early warning flood system with terraces at different levels to alert the occupants if the water is reaching a threatening level.

house rendering gif Baca architects amphibious homeThe amphibious house will be finished this November for its new owners, according to the Baca Architects team. Visit the website to learn more about the project.

Baca architects amphibious home

SEE ALSO: 20 Surprisingly Beautiful Tiny Homes Around The World

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This Lost Asimov Essay Found After 55 Years Contains 7 Great Ideas For Creativity


Isaac Asimov

A friend of the brilliant writer and biochemist Isaac Asimov has stumbled upon one of the professor's lost essays in a bundle of old files. 

Scientist Arthur Obermayer said he came across the forgotten work, entitled "How Do People Get New Ideas?," earlier this month and published it in full on Technology Review

It was written when the pair worked informally together at MIT spinoff Allied Research Associates (ARA) in Boston, a company that "focused on the effects of nuclear weapons on aircraft structures."

Half a century later, it's brimming with creative insight that's still relevant today. 

Asimov comes up with a host of points he believes help people create, basing his thoughts through the likes of Charles Darwin and his Theory of Evolution, one of the most famous ideas of all time. 

The essay is thought to have been written in 1959, when Obermayer had asked Professor Asimov to contribute to the work at ARA. 

Asimov's piece, his only formal input to the project, was written but never published; It was only used by a intimate group of researchers. 

They were working on antimissile research after the government realized no matter how much money was spent on improving technology at the time, Obermayer explains, it would remain "inadequate." 

The government wanted Obermayer and his team to "think outside the box" and Asimov, unsurprisingly, did.

But he also decided not to continue, believing access to classified information would "limit his freedom of expression," and his ideas were, seemingly, misplaced.

Luckily, they've been found. Here are seven lost ideas for creativity from Isaac Asimov:

  • He feels isolation is required for the creative process
  • People must feel at ease, they should be relaxed throughout
  • There should be a sense of informality 
  • Asimov advises a group no bigger than five for collaborative projects
  • There shouldn't be an overarching feeling of responsibility 
  • For creativeness to thrive, people must be prepared to 'fly in the face of reason'
  • Gadgets can help elicit creativity

SEE ALSO: Look How Many Of Isaac Asimov's Predictions About Robots Are Coming True

SEE ALSO: In 1964, The Brilliant Isaac Asimov Wrote Some Predictions For 2014 — Wait Until You See How Right He Was

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Inside The Lab Of A Japanese Scientist Who Is Building A Robot Version Of Himself


Luisa Whitton 3While studying at the London College of Communications, photographer Luisa Whitton was commissioned to shoot her dream project: inside the robotics lab of Japanese scientist Hiroshi Ishiguro.

Ishiguro is the director of the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory in Osaka, Japan, and one of the world’s leading roboticists. For nearly a decade, Ishiguro has dedicated his life to creating the most lifelike android possible.  

Once at the lab, Whitton was struck by the casualness of Ishiguro’s mission: to create a robot that could replace himself. While working tirelessly to create his robot, Ishiguro has been faced with the philosophical question of what it means to be human.

“It’s a question of where the soul is. Japanese people have always been told that a soul can exist in anything and everything. We don’t make much distinction between humans and robots,” Ishiguro told Whitton.

Whitton shared some photos with us here, but you can check out the rest at her website. Whitton is currently raising money on Kickstarter to continue the project.

At the Intelligent Robotics lab, Ishiguro researches the potential for robots to have sonzaikan, which roughly translates to "human presence."

At the Intelligent Robotics lab, Ishiguro researches the potential for robots to have sonzaikan, which roughly translates to “human presence.”

Ishiguro has made numerous android replicas of himself. His goal is to eventually make one that could completely replace him. This is one of his replicas.

The latest version (shown here) is the Geminoid HI-4. It can mimic Ishiguro’s expressions through motion sensors and is capable of displaying a wide range of emotions. In theory, he could send the robot in place of himself to give speeches at conferences or conduct meetings.

See the rest of the story at Business Insider

The Dutch National Airline Named Its Planes After These 10 Incredible Women


KLM McDonnell Douglas MD-11

KLM Royal Dutch Airlines operated the last scheduled flight of its McDonnell Douglas MD-11 airliner this month. With the conclusion of a weekend flight from Montreal to Amsterdam, all 3-engined widebody airliners have been retired from passenger service. 

Due to age and poor financial performance as a passenger carrier, the tri-motor airliner has been all but relegated to cargo service; FedEx is the only major company flying them.

The last MD-11 of KLM's fleet of 10 — christened "Audrey Hepburn" — is headed for storage in the California desert.

Audrey Hepburn was not the only accomplished woman to have an MD-11 named in her honor by the airline. In addition to the Hollywood screen icon, significant women from the field of science, music, literature, the arts, education, philanthropy, and aviation were selected by KLM.

Audrey Hepburn is a legend of the silver screen. The winner of 3 Academy Awards, Hepburn is known for her iconic roles in 'Breakfast At Tiffany's, 'Sabrina,' and 'My Fair Lady.'

Florence Nightingale is the mother of modern nursing. The KLM MD-11 named after her was delivered to the airline in 1994.

Maria Montessori was an Italian physician and pioneering educator. KLM's MD-11 named after her is headed for storage along with her sister planes.

See the rest of the story at Business Insider

This Chart Shows Movies Have Even Worse Gender Equality Than Real Life


legally blonde elle woods reese witherspoonIt's harder to find female doctors, judges, lawyers, and professors on our screens than it is in real life, according to a report released by the Geena Davis Institute on Gender in media. 

The report, which analyzes gender representation in popular films, found women were drastically under-represented and that professional roles almost always went to men. 

If you take a look at their chart, you can see more than 90% of lawyers are played by male actors, and the same goes for 95% of judges, 85% of doctors, and 94% of professors. 

Such representations do not reflect reality.

The American Bar Association reports that in reality 33% of lawyers are female, and the National Women's Law Center says 35% of federal judges are women. In his first term, President Barack Obama appointed 72 women to the federal bench, more than any other president.

Meanwhile, the Association of American Medical Colleges says more than 30% of practicing doctors are women, and the American Association of University Professors says 45% of professors at bachelors institutions are female. 

While there is still much progress to be made on equality in the real world, it would seem there's even more room for improvement on our screens.

Here's the chart:

Gender Equality Films

Here's another showing more hollywood equality problems:

Gender Equality Hollywood movies chart women female

SEE ALSO: Ashley Judd Eloquently Slams The Media For Calling Her 'Puffy'

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Here's Why UPenn Produces More Billionaires Than Any Other School In The World


Elon Musk

The University of Pennsylvania has produced more billionaire undergraduate alumni than any other school in the world, according to a recent report from Wealth-X.

25 current billionaires received their bachelor's degrees at Penn, the most of any school on Wealth-X's list. The only other colleges to produce similar numbers were Harvard University — with 22 undergrad alum billionaires — and Yale University — with 20.

Although UPenn is home to the Wharton School, which is considered to be a top business school for both undergraduate and graduate students, Wealth-X president David Friedman told Business Insider that the school's powerhouse reputation doesn't have a huge impact on its ultra-wealthy alumni base.

"On the surface I think that's a contributing factor, but it's definitely not a core driver" of UPenn's high number of billionaires, Friedman said.

Rather, Friedman noted, UPenn's billionaires represent successes in an array of fields, which suggests that the university isn't focused entirely on channeling students into financial services or technology.

To this point, Friedman mentioned three billionaires who got their undergraduate degrees at UPenn — Tory Burch, Elon Musk, and Steven Cohen — who made their money in fashion, technology, and finance, respectively.

Other UPenn billionaires include Donald Trump, Charles Butt, Jon Huntsman Sr., Ronald Perelman, George Lindemann, and Leonard Lauder.

Whatever you attend school, Friedman emphasized the importance of actually finishing college and getting a bachelor's degree.

"There's this myth that if you want to be a tech billionaire, you drop out of school," Friedman said. "This kind of dismantles that myth. It's about people, relationships, networks."

Additionally, Friedman highlighted something that he believes is not being discussed enough on college campuses — encouraging students to take a risk and fail.

"Most entrepreneurs have failed multiple times ... I think it's a very critical element, because emotional endurance is one of the most critical attributes for entrepreneurs," Friedman said.

Here are the 20 universities with the most billionaire undergraduate alumni and how many alumni they have, via Wealth-X:

1. University of Pennsylvania — 25

2. Harvard University — 22

3. Yale University — 20

4. University of Southern California — 16

5. Cornell University — 14

5. Princeton University — 14

5. Stanford University — 14

8. University of California, Berkeley — 12

8. University of Mumbai (India) — 12

10. London School of Economics (United Kingdom) — 11

10. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russia) — 11

12. Dartmouth College — 10

12. University of Michigan — 10

12. University of Texas — 10

15. Duke University — 9

15. New York University — 9

17. Brown University — 8

17. Columbia University — 8

19. Massachusetts Institute of Technology — 7

20. Eth Zurich (Switzerland) — 6

SEE ALSO: The 20 Universities That Have Produced The Most Billionaires

FOLLOW US! Check Out BI Colleges On Facebook

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Go Inside The Brooklyn Factory Where America's Most Powerful Men Have Their Suits Stitched By Hand


martin greenfield clothiers suit factoryA menswear factory in Brooklyn has been "doing things the old-fashioned way" for more than 60 years.

Martin Greenfield Clothiers produces handmade men's suits, an impressive feat considering less than 3% of clothes sold in the U.S. is American-made. Most U.S. apparel companies outsource their labor to places where clothing is faster and cheaper to make. But Martin Greenfield isn't in the menswear business for the money alone.

Greenfield arrived at Brooklyn manufacturer GGG Clothes in 1947 from Czechoslovakia; it was his first job in the States. He carried unfinished garments from one station to the next. A poster boy for the American Dream, Greenfield worked his way up from blind stitcher to supervisor to vice president, and eventually bought the factory, renaming it in 1977.

Today, he continues the tradition of making suits by hand at his four-floor warehouse in East Williamsburg, Brooklyn, where his client list includes Barack Obama, Bill Clinton, Michael Bloomberg, and Leonardo DiCaprio. "I see my suits being worn all over the world," Greenfield says. "I love to see the results."

You can read more about Greenfield's life story in his upcoming memoir, "Measure of a Man: From Auschwitz Survivor to Presidents' Tailor," which goes on sale November 10. 

On Varet Street in East Williamsburg, a 100-year-old brick building houses the last unionized men’s clothing factory in New York City with more than 100 employees.

The city was once an epicenter of apparel manufacturing, with more than 3,000 clothing factories rooted here. During the 1970s, fast and low-cost labor abroad forced U.S. companies to ditch the “Made in the USA” label for cheaper alternatives.

Today, 97.5% of apparel sold in America is made outside the U.S. Martin Greenfield Clothiers is the exception — a company thriving by doing things the old-fashioned way, and employing people rather than machines.

Source: The American Apparel & Footwear Association

See the rest of the story at Business Insider

Here's Why Sneezing Is Good For You

The 21 Coolest New Businesses In San Francisco


Canyon Market Cheese Counter

Due to its progressive attitude and proximity to Silicon Valley, the Bay Area is ripe for hosting cool, new businesses.

From a pirate supply store to bacon-centric eats we found the 21 most intriguing and innovative new businesses in San Francisco. We looked for businesses that opened in the last five years that bring something new to the San Francisco scene.

Know a cool business we missed? Let us know in the comments.

826 Valencia Pirate Supply Store

826 Valencia St.

What it is: A general store for pirates and pirate enthusiasts.

Why it's cool: A whimsical storefront for non-profit writing-tutoring center 826 Valencia, the 826 Valencia Pirate Supply Store sells everything you need to pillage and plunder.

Here you'll find glass eyes, hooks, beard extensions, treasure chests, mermaid bait, and more dastardly products. Sales benefit 826 Valencia.

Bacon Bacon

205A Frederick St.

What it is: A bacon-centric food truck and cafe.

Why it's cool: Bacon Bacon comes in the form of a food truck and a brick-and-mortar restaurant. And both serve, yep — you guessed it — all things bacon.

The Bacon Bacon Truck rolls around San Francisco distributing six bacon-friendly sandwiches, including a pork meatball banh mi and grilled cheese, as well as french fries and root beer. Bacon Bacon also sells a bacon bouquet and chocolate-covered bacon.

Canyon Market

2815 Diamond St.

What it is: An urban "hybrid" grocery store.

Why it's cool: Canyon Market leads the growing trend of hybrid grocery stores. This means that the market offers natural and regular groceries, as well as specialty lines that are tailored for the store's Glen Park neighborhood. 

The market has everything you could want in a grocery store: It host events, has in-store tastings, seasonal offerings, prepared foods — a very wide selection to meet your shopping needs. 

See the rest of the story at Business Insider

9 Famous Americans You Probably Didn't Know Were Muslim


Shaquille O'Neal

On the sports field and at awards ceremonies, it's common to hear people thanking God. Thanks to Allah is heard less often. 

Still, there are more than 2.5 million American Muslims, making it the third-largest religion in the US.

While Muslims account for just 0.8% of the population, they have faced rising discrimination and prejudice since the 9/11 attacks 13 years ago. With the rise of groups like the Islamic State now seeking to promote their brand of violent extremism, that may be unlikely to end anytime soon.

A recent poll reported that 62% of American's didn't personally know a Muslim, so here's a list of 10 Muslim Americans you probably will know.

Dr. Oz

dr. mehmet oz doctor Dr. Mehmet Oz, host of "The Dr Oz Show" and vice chair and professor of surgery at Columbia University, was born in Ohio to Turkish parents. His mother's family was fiercely secular, while his father's family treated Islam as much more central to their lives. Dr. Oz has said he has struggled with his religious understanding but describes his beliefs as a mystical form of Islam closely related to Sufism.

Shaquille O’Neal 

Shaquille O'Neal LinkedinO’Neal has rarely spoken publicly about being a Muslim, but in 2010 he did reveal he intended to take the Islamic pilgrimage known as the Hajj to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The Saudi government bars all non-Muslims from visiting Mecca.

Fareed Zakaria 

Fareed Zakaria The Indian-born journalist Zakaria hosts his own show on CNN, is an editor at large for Time magazine, and writes a foreign-affairs column for The Washington Post. Zakaria was raised by Muslim parents, though he has said he doesn't consider himself "a particularly religious person."

Ellen Burstyn

ellen burstyn

Burstyn, an Emmy-winning actress, appears to follow a loose form of Sufi Islam, The Wall Street Journal has reported. Burstyn, known for "The Exorcist," "Requiem For A Dream," and "Political Animals," says she believes in aspects from many major religions.

Aasif Mandvi

Aasif Mandvi Mandvi, an actor and comedian, is best known for his role as a "Daily Show" correspondent. Mandvi was born in India and spent much of his childhood in the UK before his family ultimately moved to Tampa, Florida.

Mandvi told the Tampa Bay Times, "My experience on 'The Daily Show' is that ... sometimes you get the thing that you want, but in a way that you never expected to get it.

"Like an important time to say something as a Muslim-American, as a brown person, as an immigrant. I feel like a lot of my work is about [exploring] that gap between cultures ... I just want to keep building on that," he said.


AkonA self-described "spiritual man," the rapper Akon has weaved his religious beliefs into his music. In his song "Senegal," he raps, "So what you know about how God comes first in our lives, everything that we do is for Allah."

Dave Chappelle 

dave chappelleThe comedian Chapelle has spoken about his beliefs on occasion but tends to shy away from talking about being a Muslim. "I don't normally talk about my religion publicly because I don't want people to associate me and my flaws with this beautiful thing," he told Time magazine in 2005.

In a later interview the comedian said a trip to Africa had crystallized his beliefs. “I’m a Muslim — I don’t necessarily practice the way a good Muslim is supposed to practice, but I believe in these tenants,” Chapelle said.

Ice Cube

Ice CubeRapper Ice Cube converted to Islam in the 1990s. Born and raised in Los Angeles, Ice Cube has said: "What I call myself is a natural Muslim, because it’s just me and God. You know, going to the mosque, the ritual and the tradition, it’s just not in me to do. So I don’t do it."


t-pain business insider interview Grammy Award-winning rapper T-Pain was born Faheem Rasheed Najm and grew up in Tallahassee, Florida.

He says most people aren't aware that he was raised a Muslim. "People don’t even know. Me, Busta Rhymes, Lupe Fiasco — they don’t even know we are Muslim. People think a Muslim has to have a turban or a big beard. It’s stupid," T-Pain said.

However, T-Pain has also expressed broad beliefs in aspects of many religions, and he has also said he doesn't like that religion separates people. 

NOW WATCH: The Right Way To Say 15 Celebrity Names You're Mispronouncing All The Time

SEE ALSO: The Truth About Iran: 5 Things That May Surprise Westerners

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We Checked Out The Celebrity Steakhouse That Took Over A Wall Street Hangout — Here's What You Should Know


charlie palmer steak

When the news that Rothmann's Steakhouse on East 54th Street was closing started spreading around Wall Street, there was no unanimous reaction — but a reaction, there definitely was.

While some former patrons wrote goodbye letters befitting the sadness of losing a serious hang spot, others were all too happy to see the place go.

After all, SkyBridge Capital CEO Anthony Scaramucci had Rothmann's in mind when he came up with the plans to launch his own restaurant that would be an alternative to Midtown spots, which are “not fun.”

In other words, Rothmann's was polarizing. It's location, however, is still prime Wall Street stomping ground.

And now that celebrity chef Charlie Palmer has taken over the space — turning it into Charlie Palmer Steak New York— Business Insider decided to check it out and see if it's likely Wall Street will come to more of a consensus over this new restaurant.

So here's the deal.

Rothmann's was an old school joint. Low lights, carpet, dark furniture. Charlie Palmer is a more modern steakhouse. You still have your TVs turned to ESPN and financial news, but the space seems more open and less like the clubhouse. The furniture is more sleek and the lights are brighter. 

charlie palmer steakhouseYou can imagine that has its positive points and negative points.

To properly evaluate a steakhouse you need to do the following: Check out the wine list, drink a martini, try some of the raw bar, order an array of sides, and specify (clearly) how you want your steak done.

It's not rocket science, but it's not for the weak either.

We started off with oysters and beef carpaccio. The oysters were fantastic, but the carpaccio was over done. The best thing about carpaccio is its raw simplicity. This iteration had too many bells and whistles — sauce, jalapenos etc.

No, Charlie, we came here for the beef.

The drinks were solid, though, and this is key for a Wall Street hang. After a hard day working in capital markets, people need their comfort drink and they need it done right. The Business Insider gin martini (up with a twist) was executed to perfection. 

Also, it should be noted that, aside from a moment of flakiness with our sommelier the staff was super attentive. 

For our sides we picked up french fries, creamed spinach, and macaroni and cheese. The mac and cheese won everything. It was on the creamier side of mac — rather than the casserole side — and it was on par with some of the best steakhouse macs in the city. The fries were also awesome.

The creamed spinach, however, left a little to be desired. The flavor of the cheese sauce wasn't powerful enough. You still felt like you were eating something your mom was making you finish.

Now for what really matters — the steak. Technically, it was an achievement. Like most sentient adults, we decided to order our Porterhouse for two medium rare. It was perfectly crispy on the outside, and pink on the inside — all points for technique.

There was a problem, though. The steak needed the green pepper sauce we ordered on the side. It was good sauce, we were happy to use it, but the steak needed it. That should not be.

Sauce should always be optional on a steak — an afterthought that you throw in for a little diversity on your palate through a long steak meal. Your steak shouldn't need sauce. The sauce is like putting flippers on in a swimming pool — sure, it makes you faster but sometimes you'd rather just lounge around anyway.

Charlie Palmer Steak is delicious and certainly less stuffy than its predecessor, but it could be simpler.

It will, however, do the job.

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A London Hotel Is Letting Guests Stay In A Hogwarts-Style Bedroom Just Like 'Harry Potter'


Harry Potter themed Georgian House hotel 2

The Georgian House Hotel, a boutique bed and breakfast in Victoria, Central London, is offering guests the chance to stay in a Hogwarts-style bedroom just like Harry Potter would have.

The "Wizarding Chamber" is a gothic twist on the typical visit to London. The rooms include four-poster beds, stone wash basins, potion bottles, and cauldrons.

There are also other "unexpected wizardly details," according to the website, such as a spell book and trunks artfully placed throughout the rooms.

A full English breakfast is included with every stay, sans "bogey flavoured Bertie Botts Every Flavour Beans." 

Harry Potter themed Georgian House hotel 4There are also packages that include a "Muggle Walking Tour," which takes you around the sights of central London where the films were shot, including the famous platform 9 3/4 at King's Cross Station.

A separate package has guests boarding a bus bound for the Warner Bros Studio for The Making of Harry Potter Tour.

Harry Potter themed Georgian House hotel 3A day in the life of Harry Potter doesn't come cheap, though: A night in the Wizard Chambers for two, breakfast, Muggle and Studio Tour tickets will run you $585. Without the tours, the price still comes to $337.

Besides the two Harry Potter-themed rooms, the 4-star Georgian also offers the less-magical Belgravia Boutique and Victorian Classic rooms.

Since the website has already been having trouble loading since announcing the new promotion, we're guessing if you're interested in renting a room, you better do it fast.

Harry Potter themed Georgian House hotel

SEE ALSO: The 25 Best Hotels In Europe

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Concert Cellist Hooks Her Brain Up To Speakers To Create Bizarre New Music


Concert cellist, Katinka Kleijn, can play a duet with her own brain.

"It was really interesting when I heard the sound of my own brain — or a translation of my own brain waves into sound," she says in the audio file below, which we first saw on Buzzfeed.

Kleijn achieves such a feat by wearing an electroencephalography (EEG) headset, her composer Daniel Dehaan tells Business Insider. Billions of small cells called neurons compose the human brain. They communicate with each other by emitting electrochemical impulses, which the headset can measure.

"It reads these electrical impulses between neurons and the brain ... which aren't actually sound themselves but just signals," he says.

Dehaan then uses a program called Max/MSP to translate those signals into audio. Initially, they appear as data, which he must scale as directly as possible into values appropriate for sound. He doesn't assign brain waves instrumental sounds, like a clarinet or a drum. Instead, they create an entirely unique sound.

"We receive many separate streams of numbers [from the headset] ranging from very small increments to very large," Dehaan explains. Initially, the company who made the headsets wouldn't provide a key, a huge challenge the team.

Another problem arises when translating the data too — most of the brain's electrical impulses occur at frequencies below what the human ear can hear. The brain exchanges electrical impulses at about 0 to 30 hertz, while human hearing ranges from 20 to 20,000 hertz. For some perspective, the cello has a frequency range of about 65 to 880 hertz.

That means the human ear simply can't hear certain sounds. "You might feel a vibration in your stomach or your chest though," Dehaan says.

The frequency of brain waves also reveals information about the person's psychical and emotional state. For example, increased activity in the 8 to 13 hertz can suggest someone feels relaxed but aware, while anywhere above that implies alertness, agitation, tenseness, or fear. Colored spotlights during Kleijn's performances also indicate the strengths of her four affective states: meditation (blue), engagement (green), excitement (yellow), and frustration (red).

Katinka KleijnBelieve it or not, Kleijn has a much more difficult job than Dehaan. During a performance, she must play the cello and simultaneously react to words, like "grief" or "excitement" that flash across a screen in front of her along with small musical fragments. She controls when the words or fragments appear with two foot pedals while she plays.

"I can't do what she does," Dehaan says.

To start the rehearsal process, Kleijn needed to become accustomed to the sound of her own brain and learn to control it. Easier said than done.

If the word "calm" flashed across the screen, the second Katinka would feel calm, she'd become excited about feeling calm, which would change the sound, Dehaan tells Business Insider. Then, she'd immediately become frustrated she lost the feeling of calmness, changing the sound once again.

"You're constantly aware of your own emotions," he says. "And it's amplified because everyone else in the room also is."

Watch the full video of her performance at the Chicago Cultural Center in 2013.

Although Dehaan and his team aren't the first to use EEG technology for music, he considers their focus on the performer's experience rather revolutionary.

"Did she [Kleijn] have a lot of coffee this morning? Did she have a good conversation with the last person she spoke with?" Dehaan inquires. "It opens up this inner world of the performer while she performs." The audience hears the evolution of Kleijn's brain's response to stimuli.

Exploring this technology and its relationship to the brain has potential far beyond music, as well. Dehaan remembers one concert in Chicago where a woman told him that she used a similar EEG headset of her mentally disabled son to help him understand and develop his learning strategies.

"The applications are endless," Dehaan says.

SEE ALSO: 4 Weird Ways Music Affects The Brain

SEE ALSO: What Our Brain Looks Like When It Hears Music

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New York's Subway System Turns 110 — See How The City's Famous Trains Are Made


kawasaki tour

If you live in New York City, chances are you use the subway system daily. Love them or hate them, New York's subway cars are an iconic symbol of the city. But have you ever wondered how those cars came to be? 

We did, and since today marks the 110th anniversary of our glorious subway system, we thought we would find out.

We took a trip (via subway, of course, as well as Metro-North rail) up to Yonkers, New York, to the Kawasaki Rail Car Manufacturing Facility, where many of New York's subway cars are completed and readied for service. What we found gave us a new perspective on the way we get to work every morning.

Kawasaki has been making heavy rail cars since 1906. Their Yonkers factory recently celebrated its 25th anniversary. Why Yonkers? An initial contract with the Port Authority for PATH trains stipulated that cars had to have final assembly done within a 25-mile radius of the Statue of Liberty. The building also used to be a Port Authority building.

Rolling stock makes up 10% of Kawaski's manufacturing, which includes commuter rail, high speed rail, light rail, and heavy rail. At this site, they do final assembly of brand new cars, as well refurbish older ones.

Kawasaki is the second largest manufacturer of train cars, owning 23.5% of the passenger rail market, just behind Bombardier with 30.1%. The third largest competitor is Siemens. Subway cars are built on contract from various authorities. The Yonkers plant has built and overhauled cars for the Port Authority, LIRR, PATH, SEPTA, and others.

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The 10 Most Expensive Halloween Costumes Sold On eBay


Iron Man costume ebay

When it comes to Halloween costumes, some fans are willing to drop some serious cash to dress like their favorite characters. 

Some people turn to online marketplaces like eBay to find the perfect getup.

Market research company Terapeak has compiled a list of the most expensive costumes bought on eBay this Halloween season.

You'll be surprised to see just how much people are willing to spend.  

Someone dropped $2,300 on this recreation of Star Wars' 4-LOM droid costume.

The winning bid on this Spider-Man costume was a cool $2,500.

This Batman costume also went for $2,500.

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How One Of NYC's Hottest Nightlife Groups Is Blowing Out Halloween


Marquee NYC

Don't know what you're going to be for Halloween yet? That can wait.

What's really clutch is where you're going to party.

Business Insider caught up with Jonathan Schwartz of NYC's Strategic Group to get the word on what he'll be doing. Since Strategic handles all the goings-on at Marquee and PH-D at the Dream Downtown, this is key information.

Marquee will have six different DJs on deck with Burning Man style art cars and dancers wearing insane costumes designed by Carmela Lane.

"The biggest difference between this year and last year," said Schwartz, "is that this will be more music driven, last year was more celebrity driven.

Sorry if you missed Heidi Klum last year. However, this year you may find yourself upstairs in The Green Room — some addition VIP space being created specifically for this party.

"At Marquee you're going to find a lot of nightlife staples... a really good crowd that likes to go late," said Schwartz.

General admission will cost you $125. Table packages go from $3500 to $25,000.

The party at the Dream Downtown will have two parts.

There's the "The Animal Party" in The Gallery — where Strategic is bringing in 30 palm trees and Swedish producer Marcus Schossow to take care of the music. Costumes will have a black swan and yellow theme, and yes they will be nuts.

Upstairs on the roof the party will be friends and family based. You'll still have DJ Theory on deck at PH-D, and Carmela Lane's insane costumes, "but it's not going to be somewhere where you're too overwhelmed," said Schwartz.

Think more of an up-scale, Soho House vibe.

Tickets to the PHD party will cost you $90 for general admission, $135 for an open bar from 9-12 pm. Tables start at $3,000 and go to $30,000.

Check out fliers for all the action at The Dream Downtown below:

PHD FLIER halloween

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We Can See Why People Are Crazy About A California Grilled Cheese Chain That Raised $10 Million In Venture Capital


Aged cheddar oozes out of the artisan white bread sandwich at a molten-lava pace. I bite into crisp strips of smoked bacon and macaroni noodles, and I kind of forget where I am in time and space.

This is not your mom's grilled cheese.

Fast-casual eatery The Melt, which is headquartered in the Bay Area, dedicates itself to savory and tech-savvy grilled cheese sandwiches starting at $5 a pop. And cheese aficionados across California are lining up at lunchtime for toasted creations as tame as The Classic (cheddar on artisan white) or as decadent as The Shroom (Swiss, portabello mushrooms, and grilled onions on sourdough).

the melt, grilled cheese classic

The Melt opened with not-so-humble beginnings. The brainchild of Flip Video founder Jonathan Kaplan, Sequoia Capital  the firm that backed Apple, Google, Instagram, and Oracle  put up $10 million to get the chain off the ground in 2011. Today, a management team led by Kaplan and a board of directors including three prominent Silicon Valley venture capitalists, a former head of retail operations at Apple, and a James Beard award-winning chef, oversee 15 locations throughout California, including several in Silicon Valley.

We stopped by The Melt's New Montgomery location in San Francisco to find out if it's worth dining out on grilled cheese that costs more than a loaf of white bread and packet of Velveeta combined.

the melt, grilled cheese

When we arrived at 12:30 p.m. on a work day, young professionals packed the place, although the line moved quickly.

The menu board contained eight grilled cheeses to choose from: four basics ($4.95) and four specialty sandwiches ($6.95). Diners could customize their sandwich with fresh tomato, jalapeno, or grilled onion at no cost; meat and other veggies run $1 – $2 per add-on.

the melt, grilled cheese

I ordered the Mac Daddy, a bacon-macaroni-gluttony combo. It cost $6.95 and came with a pickle (or chips).

It's evident that Kaplan's tech background influenced much of the ordering process. My initials popped up on an electronic order status board by the pick-up area, and when my sandwich was ready my initials jumped to the top with the words "Order up!'

the melt, grilled cheese

While waiting for my coworker's sandwich to hit the counter, we noticed some patrons skip the line entirely. Part of The Melt's tech-shtick is its expedited online ordering process. When you place your order on the website or mobile app, you receive an email with a QR code that is unique to your purchase. You can go to any Melt location, walk straight to the pick-up area, and tap the QR code to a scanner to send your order to the kitchen.

The Melt app also gives you the option to send your order to the kitchen without being inside the store, so it's ready for pick-up whenever you are.

the melt, grilled cheese, qr code

Vice President of Operations Greg Hernandez told Gizmodo in an interview that the perfect grilled cheese combines a few criteria. The cheese needs to be ooey-gooey, the bread has to be crispy "but not hard like a crouton," and the sandwich as a whole should be moist without turning soggy.

The contraption pictured below is the secret ingredient to cultivating this grilled cheese of technology lore. The sandwich cooks in the glorified toaster for approximately 50 seconds. While The Melt declined to take us behind the counter and teach us its ways, I have faith in a company that recruited NASA consultants to design its delivery transport boxes.

the melt, grilled cheese

I soon discovered my trust was well placed. The Mac Daddy's bread tasted buttered and heavily herb-spiced, but the sandwich was not so greasy that it leaked all over my hand. The saltiness of the bacon complemented the rich mac and cheese, of which there was just enough.

the melt, grilled cheese, mac daddy

The indulgent lunch filled me for most of the afternoon. I regret nothing.

SEE ALSO: San Franciscans Are Lining Up To Eat This Sushi-Burrito Hybrid

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