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A woman received an invoice for her meal when she ghosted someone after a first date — here's an etiquette expert's take on the situation



  • After she ghosted a date, Amanda Burnett received a $40 invoice for her half of a dinner.
  • According to an etiquette expert, it’s customary for the person who asked for the date to pay, but some people prefer to split the bill.
  • If you offered to pay, it's decidedly not polite to send a bill after-the-fact.


When you go on a date, there's always a chance that it won’t be a romantic fit. It certainly feels lousy if you like someone and want the relationship to progress, but they don’t feel the same way … and it can be even more hurtful if you reach out and get ghosted.

But does that mean it's OK to send an invoice after the date?

It happened to Amanda Burnett, an Indiana woman who went on a dinner date and later received an itemized invoice of everything she ate and drank during the date, the Daily Mail reports.

Burnett shared the invoice on Twitter and, although the original tweet has been deleted, a screenshot of her caption said: "A guy just mailed me a bill for our dinner a few weeks ago because I didn’t text him back … I can't make this s**t up."

Her date didn't stop there — he also sent a text that said, "And to avoid additional penalty or fines have the invoice paid otherwise it will be turned into a collection agency," according to a screenshot published by Daily Mail.

The specifics of the situation, like whether Burnett offered to pay but her date declined, and who asked whom for the date, are unclear. But Business Insider reached out to Daniel Post Senning, great-great-grandson of etiquette expert Emily Post and spokesperson for The Emily Post Institute, to get his take on whether billing your date for their meal is acceptable.

SEE ALSO: Here is exactly what to say when you're not sure who should pay on a first date

1. It is customary that the person who asked for the date pays for it

"The traditional thing is that the host pays, so whoever asked the person out on the date would pay," Post Senning said. "But we’ve been living in a world where people for all different reasons like to split the bill in a relationship and on first dates."

However, he added that some people prefer the "traditional courtesy" of the host paying, and that in the past it was typically men doing the asking, and thus paying. If someone asked you out but you would feel more comfortable splitting the bill, you should mention that you’d like to contribute.

2. It's definitely not customary to send an invoice after you've agreed to pay

If everyone is operating under the understanding that this is a social situation, there are generally not going to be invoices involved, Post Senning said. "Part of having good etiquette is being able to read social cues. Sending an invoice sounds vindictive in some ways, because it's shifting the context from social to professional."

3. There is no obligation to respond to someone's texts or calls after a date — but it's the polite thing to do

We also don't know how the date ended. Burnett may have explicitly told him or given him signs that she wasn’t interested when they parted ways. We do know she didn't respond to his texts after the date.

Post Senning's take on ghosting? Although he says that there is not an "obligation to respond," it is the polite thing to do.

If you've spent a long time together, he recommends ending things in person, but if you met up for a quick drink or dinner, a simple text message or phone call will do. "Thanking someone for the time you did spend together is a good way to politely end an interaction," Post Senning said.

It can be hurtful not to put an end to things in words in a world where communication is so easy, he said.

See the rest of the story at Business Insider

The royal wedding is a month away — here's how much Meghan Markle and Prince Harry are expected to spend on their big day


Prince Harry Meghan Markle

  • Meghan Markle and Prince Harry are getting married at St. George's Chapel, in Windsor, on May 19.
  • Kensington Palace will cover the cost of the royal wedding, an expense traditionally taken on by the bride's family.
  • The royal wedding is expected to cost in excess of $45 million (£32 million), most of which is allotted for security.


The average cost of a wedding for couples in the US and the UK is around $34,000 (£23,700).

Five figures is a huge expense for a one-day affair. That is, unless you're ultra-rich — and especially if you're royalty rich.

Next month, the world will bear witness to the most anticipated royal wedding in years. Meghan Markle and Prince Harry are set to be married on May 19 at St. George's Chapel, in Windsor, and will begin a carriage procession immediately after the ceremony. Their reception will take place later on the grounds of Windsor Castle.

Kensington Palace will cover the cost of the wedding, an expense traditionally taken on by the bride's family.

The case was the same for Kate Middleton and Prince William's 2011 royal wedding— the only item Middleton paid for was her six-figure Alexander McQueen dress. Their total wedding celebration cost $34 million (£23.7 million).

Markle and Prince Harry's wedding will reportedly cost in excess of $45.8 million (£32 million), according to Bride Book's estimation.

The venue is the biggest part of a typical wedding budget for couples in the US and the UK, taking up nearly half of the entire wedding cost. Access to St. George's Chapel — and St. George's Great Hall, where the wedding reception will take place — is free of charge for Markle and Prince Harry. Transportation is also free, thanks to the Queen's fleet of Rolls-Royces, Daimlers, and Bentleys.

The greatest cost for the royal couple? Security. Protecting Markle and Prince Harry, plus thousands of guests and onlookers, will run Kensington Palace a whopping $43 million (£30 million), estimates Bride Book. That includes the cost of snipers, undercover police, military technology, and security drones. The bulk of Kate Middleton and Prince William's wedding budget similarly went to security costs. 

Otherwise, Markle and Prince Harry's total wedding spend, including food, cakes, entertainment, wardrobe, and the honeymoon, amounts to about $2.8 million.

Below, check out Bride Book's breakdown of what the royal wedding will cost.

SEE ALSO: Prince Harry and Meghan Markle will have to file US taxes once they get married — and that could spell trouble for the royal family

DON'T MISS: Here's what time Prince Harry and Meghan Markle's royal wedding will start where you live

Food and drinks — $686,000 (£479,000). Catering is needed for both the formal lunch reception and the dinner reception for friends and family. Top-shelf champagne, wine, and whiskey will likely come from the Royal Palace cellars. The Royal Family’s favorite champagne, Bollinger, goes for nearly $115 (£80) a bottle; that's approximately $195,000 (£136,000) spent on champagne alone.

Source: Bride Book

Wedding dress — $430,000 (£300,000). The rumor mill is working overtime when it comes to Markle's dress, which will reportedly have a six-figure price tag and be paid for by the bride herself. A fashion icon in the making, Markle is expected to go with a traditional design and unique detail.


Marquee — $500,000 (£350,000). Even though Markle and Prince Harry are using St. George's Chapel free of charge, they'll need a large event tent to host guests on the grounds after the immediate reception in St. George's Great Hall.

Source: Bride Book

See the rest of the story at Business Insider

Your DNA determines whether you're an introvert or an extrovert — here's how to tell which one you are



  • It is unlikely that you are entirely an extrovert or an introvert.
  • It's more likely you are somewhere in the middle — but many of us associate with one side more than the other.
  • Scientific evidence has shown how extroverts and introverts differ in both behaviour and biology.
  • The way you are is written in your DNA, so it's unlikely you'll be able to change it.

At some point in your life, you've probably been described as an extrovert or an introvert. It's true that many of us place ourselves in one of those two categories — or somewhere in the middle if you're an ambivert.

These labels were coined in the 1920s by the psychologist Carl Jung. He said the differences between these personality types are essentially down to energy. Extroverted people often receive energy by social interactions, while introverts need time alone to recharge.

But nobody is entirely one or the other — introverts enjoy social occasions too, and extroverts will enjoy reading a book somewhere quiet from time to time. What is clear is that some people are more on one end of the scale than the other.

Linda Blair, a clinical psychologist, told Business Insider that your level of introversion or extroversion is actually in your DNA. In other words, you can't change it.

"It has to do with what's called the need for arousal," she said. "This is not sexual arousal, but it's a need to be stimulated before you act — before you can do what you want to do."

Introverts have a lot of the chemical that makes them feel stimulated. Extroverts don't have so much. This is why introverts tend to avoid crowded places or deadlines — things that are likely to put extra pressure on them — because they already have pressure within themselves.

Extroverts don't have enough of this arousal chemical. So to complete things or have a good time, they need to feel like they are ready for action, and seek out places where there's pressure.

"It has nothing to do with confidence, it has to do with pressure and arousal," Blair said. "How extroverted or introverted you are is something you need to wear. You need to work with it, live with it, and use it to your advantage."

German psychologist Hans Eysenck came up with this biological explanation for introverts and extroverts a few decades ago. It essentially means that if an introvert is in a loud restaurant or a crowded office, they will easily get overstimulated and overwhelmed. An extrovert requires these highly stimulating environments to get them to do anything.

Another theory states that it's all about reward systems, discussed in this paper from 1970. It suggests that extrovert brains are more sensitive to rewards, like making someone laugh in a social interaction. Introverts don't seek out these rewards.

Other studies have shown how extroverts pay more attention to human faces than introverts, and how introverts have a higher level of brain function in regions associated with learning, vigilance, and motor control.

There are many ways the brains of introverts and extroverts have been shown to be different. There are also studies that show differences in behaviour. For example, extroverts talk more abstractly, and introverts more concretely, and extroverts have an advantage with speaking and and reading a new language, while introverts are better at listening to it.

Also, extroverts are more likely to take risks and wear more decorative clothing.

As Blair said, this doesn't necessarily mean extroverts are happier or even more confident. It's simply a different way of living. After all, two people can go to a party and stay there for entirely different motivations.

"To show confidence doesn't mean you have to go out and mix with crowds," she said. "To show confidence, it may be that you choose to be alone. Psychology is all about not what you do but why."

SEE ALSO: Most people might not be extroverts or introverts but 'ambiverts' — here's what it means to be one

Join the conversation about this story »

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Barbie has a last name — and people are beyond shocked



  • The Barbie Twitter account has revealed that the doll's last name is Roberts.
  • She was apparently named Barbara Millicent Roberts when she was invented in 1959.
  • However, like many famous people, she became known only by one name.
  • Ken's full name is apparently Ken Carson.

If you grew up playing with Barbie, chances are you assumed she didn't have a surname. After all, she's got by just fine with only one name since 1959.

However, fans were shocked when the brand recently announced that she does have one after all.

In honour of National Siblings Day on April 10, the Barbie account tweeted: "Happy #SiblingsDay, from the Roberts sisters!" alongside a photo of Barbie and her sisters.

Hundreds of users have commented and the post, which has been liked over 10,000 times.

A number of fans expressed their shock at the idea that Barbie had a surname.

However, according to the Evening Standard, this isn't the first time the name has been revealed.

Barbie creator Ruth Handler christened the doll Barbara Millicent Roberts after her own daughter of the same name, so it's always been there.

However, she quickly became known simply as "Barbie" — in keeping with other famous people like Madonna, Adele or Prince.

Despite her surname fading from common knowledge, there is even more backstory.

In 1960 a series of Random House novels revealed Barbie's parents' names were George and Michael Roberts. The family came from the fictional town of Willows, Wisconsin, where Barbie attended Willows High School.

Ken has a surname, too

Barbie's boyfriend, Ken, also reportedly has a surname.

The doll, introduced two years after Barbie, is apparently named Ken Carson.

SEE ALSO: Home video shows an 8-year-old Meghan Markle playing the Queen and ordering her 'servants' to make 900,000 cookies

Join the conversation about this story »

NOW WATCH: Why Apple makes it so hard to get a new iPhone battery

Very unattractive people earn significantly more money, according to a new study


man model

  • Beautiful people arguably have an easier life — they're happier, healthier, and have more friends.
  • A common belief is that good-looking people also earn more money.
  • But a new study turns this theory on its head.
  • Researchers have found that people who are "very unattractive" may be the biggest earners.
  • So your looks might not let you down, at least when it comes to money.

It's no secret that life can be easier for beautiful people. Studies have shown being good-looking has benefits for your health, intelligence, and helps with making friends.

Being physically attractive can also literally pay off, as many people believe it can mean you make more money. In short, beautiful people are more confident, have more social skills, and are seen as more able by employers, which translates to higher wages.

However, a recent study, published in the Journal of Business and Psychology, has found there is a caveat to this "beauty premium."

Satoshi Kanazawa from the London School of Economics and Political Science and Mary Still from the University of Massachusetts in Boston analysed data from a study of 20,000 young Americans. They were interviewed and measured on physical attractiveness at age 16 then three more times until they were 29.

The findings showed that the theory there is a "ugliness penalty" on wages isn't that simple. When other traits were taken into account, such as health and intelligence, results showed people who were more conscientious, extroverted, and less neurotic earned significantly more than others.

Also, participants who were labeled as "very unattractive" always earned more than those who were just "unattractive." This was also sometimes the case when very unattractive people were compared to those who were average-looking and attractive.

Alex Fradera offers an explanation for this in BPS Digest. He said the personality trait "Openness to Experience" may have been surprisingly correlated with lower earnings and higher attractiveness in this particular data set, when it is usually associated with higher pay.

"Could this Openness-attractiveness association be an indicator that some of the very unattractive scored especially low on Openness, and were perhaps highly devoted to a specific topic area, pursuing it obsessively to the exclusion of all distractions and eventually entering the forefront of their field?" he wrote. "We know that Openness correlates negatively with the passion component of 'Grit,' so such effects are conceivable."

Still said the methods of previous studies may not have accounted for the really ugly people because the "very unattractive" and "unattractive" are often lumped in together in one group.

"Thereby they fail to document the ugliness premium enjoyed by the very unattractive workers," she said.

SEE ALSO: A psychologist says this is the one simple way to tell if you're insecure or self-confident

Join the conversation about this story »

NOW WATCH: Leslie Odom, Jr.'s $500,000 gamble that led to 'Hamilton'

100 under-the-radar beaches everyone should visit in their lifetime


pink sand beach Komodo, Indonesia

Whether you've only spent a handful of days on the sand in your life or you're a full-blown sunseeker, there are plenty of breathtaking beaches on this planet waiting to be discovered.

And, whether you look for a spot with an element of adventure, peace and quiet, or you simply don't like your towel to be too close to a stranger, many of them fly under-the-radar to tourists despite their spectacular beauty.

Business Insider asked some of the most influential travel bloggers and experts, from the likes of Lonely Planet, Secret Escapes, KAYAK, British AirwaysAirbnb, lastminute.com, and HolidayPirates for the most incredible under-the-radar beaches they've ever visited. Jet-setters in our own office also contributed. Together, their choices don't disappoint.

From a red sand beach in Maui to a sandy spot in Thailand inhabited entirely by monkeys, scroll down for a list of 100 under-the-radar beaches everyone should visit in their lifetime.

SEE ALSO: 100 trips everyone should take in their lifetime, according to the world's top travel experts

Furore, Italy.

"This little hidden beach is off the beaten path, but expect many locals to be frolicking in the waters around the Amalfi Coast," said James Asquith, the youngest person to travel to every country.

"The tiny strip of sand is wedged between a gigantic Fjord and you can get a fantastic view down from the nearby coastal road bridge. Don’t expect beach shacks or cafes but prepare yourself for a quintessential Italian summer experience."

Red Sand Beach, Maui, Hawaii, USA.

"Continuing with the colour theme and unique views, welcome to Red Sand Beach in Maui," Asquith said. "Caused by lava flows this time, instead of the dark volcanic rock in the neighbouring Big Island, this beach not only attracts some great wildlife but also is self-contained by rustic-looking rocks and vegetation."

Punalu'u Beach, The Big Island, Hawaii, USA.

This is "not your regular beach," according to Asquith. "This secluded stretch of sand is completely black," he said. "Caused by crushed volcanic rock particles and ash over millions of years, at first you may think the black sand looks ugly compared to traditional beaches, you will soon come to see the true and unique beauty of this beach, along with some pretty cool pictures for Instagram too!"

See the rest of the story at Business Insider

Here's what time Prince Harry and Meghan Markle's royal wedding will start where you live


meghan markle prince harry engagement

  • The wedding of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle will begin at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle at midday (UK time) on Saturday, May 19.
  • The Dean of Windsor will conduct the service and the Archbishop of Canterbury will officiate as the couple make their vows.
  • At 1 p.m. the newly married couple will embark on a carriage procession through Windsor Town.
  • A lunchtime reception hosted by Her Majesty the Queen will follow at St George's Hall for the couple and guests from the congregation.
  • Around 200 guests have also been invited to an evening reception at Frogmore House in the evening, hosted by Prince Charles.
  • Scroll down to see what time the celebrations will start where you live.

Prince Harry got official consent from Her Majesty the Queen last month to marry Meghan Markle at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle on Saturday, May 19 — but wedding plans have been underway for months.

The wedding service will begin at midday, meaning it's unlikely to clash with the 2018 FA Cup Final that falls on the same date, but that usually kicks off later in the day, according to The Guardian.

The Dean of Windsor will conduct the service and the Archbishop of Canterbury will officiate as the couple make their vows.

Here's an outside look at the Chapel...

St George's Chapel Windsor Castle

...and here's a glimpse inside.

st george's chapel

At 1 p.m. Harry and Meghan will embark on a carriage procession from St George's Chapel through Windsor Town returning to Windsor Castle along the Long Walk, which will offer some members of the public a glimpse of the newly married couple.

Kensington Palace said the couple "hope this short journey will provide an opportunity for more people to come together around Windsor and to enjoy the atmosphere of this special day."

They've invited over 2,000 members of the public into the grounds of Windsor Castle to watch the couple and their guests arrive, and to watch the carriage procession as it departs from the castle.

There will be a reception for the couple and their guests from the congregation at St George's Hall following the service.

Here's a photo inside St George's Hall:

Prince Charles will host a private evening reception for the couple and their close friends and family later that evening at Frogmore House.

If you want to mark it in your diary, here's what time the royal wedding will start in major cities across different time zones on Saturday, May 19:

  • London (BST) 12 p.m.
  • Paris (CEST): 1 p.m.
  • Moscow (MSK): 2 p.m.
  • Tokyo (JST): 8 p.m.
  • Sydney (AET): 9 p.m.
  • Honolulu (HAST): 1 a.m.
  • Los Angeles (PT): 4 a.m.
  • Las Vegas (PT): 4 a.m.
  • Denver (MT): 5 a.m.
  • Chicago (CT): 6 a.m.
  • New York (ET): 7 a.m.
  • Seoul (KST): 8 p.m.

SEE ALSO: 'Knocked Up' and 'Grey's Anatomy' star Katherine Heigl has confirmed she's joining the cast of 'Suits' as Meghan Markle departs

Join the conversation about this story »

NOW WATCH: Jared Kushner and Ivanka Trump tried to cut a secret deal with Planned Parenthood — here's what happened

What marijuana does to your body and brain


Like any drug, marijuana has a variety of effects on the body — some positive, others negative.

While it's perhaps best-known for its more obvious effects like red eyes, food cravings, and its characteristic high, marijuana has also been linked with the potential to provide certain types of pain relief. Some research suggests it may even help control specific kinds of epileptic seizures.

Depending on how much and how often you use, marijuana's effects can vary widely.


SEE ALSO: What 5 popular drugs including weed and booze do to your body and brain

DON'T MISS: Why psychedelics like magic mushrooms kill the ego and fundamentally transform the brain

Join the conversation about this story »

NOW WATCH: Here's why marijuana gives you the munchies

Pharmaceutical giants are sidestepping US marijuana restrictions to research cannabis-based drugs



  • Federal policies restricting marijuana research have made it difficult to study marijuana and produce cannabis-based drugs — but that isn't stopping pharmaceutical companies from doing it.
  • Some are researching and developing drugs made with marijuana compounds in labs just north of the border. Others are growing the raw materials for their products in South America.
  • Although only a single cannabis-based drug is currently approved for use in the US, others are likely on their way.
  • Some will appear first in marijuana dispensaries in states where marijuana has been legalized; others will await approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Getting marijuana-based drugs approved in America is no easy task.

According to the US Drug Enforcement Administration, cannabis has no medical use. Until two years ago, all domestic research on the drug had to rely on rotting samples from a single, well-secured weed facility at the University of Mississippi. Today, researchers who want to grow marijuana have to apply for a license in a convoluted process that can take years. Only a single cannabis-based drug has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration to date — and it contains CBD, a non-psychoactive compound in marijuana that is not responsible for its characteristic high.

But as researchers are only beginning to uncover, marijuana — with its roughly 400 compounds, each of which is potentially responsible for a distinct effect — has a wide variety of potential medical applications, from relieving pain and nausea to reducing the symptoms of rare diseases like childhood epilepsy. And these benefits are emerging just as scientists are uncovering huge downsides to traditional medications like opioids.

Some are lending their support to Canadian marijuana startups growing their products in countries like Colombia; others are applying for permits to import marijuana extracts like CBD and THC; still others are obtaining approval in Europe first and hoping that validation gives them an edge during the difficult FDA approval process.

Cannabis startups are among a handful of 'resident' startups at the Johnson & Johnson incubator in Canada

jjlabs_torontoAt Johnson & Johnson's JLabs in Toronto, scientists and entrepreneurs follow a gleaming steel road towards shared workspaces separated only by clear glass walls. Pops of bright blue honeycomb print and creative lighting imbue the center with a sense that change is right around the corner.

It was here, roughly a year ago, that the pharmaceutical giant welcomed the first marijuana startup into its JLabs Innovation network, an ecosystem designed to give budding companies access to the resources and leadership they need to get off the ground. JLabs accepted a second cannabis company, Vapium Medical, as a resident about three months later.

The first was Avicanna, a Toronto-based biotech company focused on medical cannabis.

As part of the JLabs ecosystem, Avicanna gets access to lab space, a Johnson & Johnson mentor, and the recognition they need to recruit top-notch scientists and researchers. In exchange, Johnson & Johnson get a chance to work with an innovative company and invest if and when they see fit.

"Partnering with JLabs allowed us to obtain a lot of credibility," Aras Azadian, Avicanna's CEO, told Business Insider. "It's also a great atmosphere to work in and to bring others in."

avicanna product lineupBefore getting accepted as a JLabs resident (after applying for the third time), Avicanna was a fledgling startup, Azadian said. But that changed when the company joined JLabs.

In just over a year, the company went from a staff of five to 17 in Canada and 30 in Colombia, where the company grows and harvests the marijuana that goes into its products — which thus far include a series of patches, creams, and sprays that will be sold under the Pura Elements brand. Azadian said he expects a selection of those products to be available in dispensaries in California, where marijuana is legal, by the end of this year.

Azadian says that while Johnson & Johnson isn't yet invested financially in Avicanna, just being in the space significantly raises the chances that the pharmaceutical giant might eventually take that leap.

"Since we're part of their ecosystem it's much more convenient to cooperate and collaborate — a lot more so than to start working with new company," Azadian said. "I think we've positioned ourselves well to be a good fit for them."

Avicanna's initial product lineup will go to US dispensaries in states where marijuana is legal, like California.

But Azadian is hopeful that the company's research with scientists at the University of Toronto, including tests in cells and mice and eventual clinical trials in humans, will bolster their next line of products, which are geared towards treating medical conditions like eczema. Avicanna also hopes to eventually launch sustained-release capsule formulations aimed at pain relief.

"I think with our approach — strictly looking at this from a medical perspective with a team of some of the best scientists on board — I'm excited to see where this goes," Azadian said.

Other pharma companies are looking to study cannabis by importing extracts

marijuana plant lab research

Instead of going the incubator route, several small pharmaceutical companies are applying for federal permits to import cannabis extracts like CBD and THC.

Those companies include Virginia-based research group Sanyal Biotechnology, a contract-based drugmaker that focuses on liver diseases and was spun out of Virginia Commonwealth University in 2015; and Noramco, a Delaware-based drugmaker that focuses on medications used to treat illnesses including ADHD and addiction as well as pain.

Both companies filed reports in March with the DEA's federal register to import cannabis extracts; Noramco also applied for a permit to import whole plant material.

Sanyal's decision to import cannabis extracts comes from a recent partnership with Ontario-based cannabis drug company Revive Therapeutics. Last year, Revive reached out to Sanyal to inquire about testing CBD for its potential effects on autoimmune hepatitis, a chronic disease in which the body's immune system attacks the liver.

Around that time, Sanyal applied for a permit with the DEA to study CBD; but the company has yet to be cleared to import the extracts.

Rebecca Caffrey, Sanyal's CEO, told Business Insider that while she understands the need for approval, the application and permitting process has seemed excessive at times. If they don't recieve the required permits by this summer, Sanyal may need to refer Revive back to Canada where another lab will take over the research.

"We've just been going through all these hoops," Caffrey said. "I understand why they have to have these restrictions, but it does make it hard to do business."

Only one cannabis-based drug has the FDA's stamp of approval

marinol dronabinol abbvie

So far, only one cannabis-based drug has been approved via the traditional drug-approval route, which involves working closely with multiple regulatory agencies including the DEA and FDA.

That drug, known by its generic name dronabinol, is designed to treat some of the negative side-effects of chemotherapy and AIDS, such as nausea, loss of appetite, and weight loss. It is made using lab-produced versions of THC, the main psychoactive ingredient in marijuana.

Chicago-based Abbott Pharmaceuticals spinoff AbbVie got approval for its dronabinol formulation, which is in pill form and called Marinol, by making the case that it offered advances where no other adequate therapies existed. Arizona-based drug company Insys Therapeutics also recently received approval for a liquid version of dronabinol that treats the same conditions.

The next company to secure FDA approval for a cannabis-derived drug will likely be the UK-based pharmaceutical company GW Pharmaceuticals, which recently got a green light from an outside panel of scientists in favor of its efficacy and safety. On Thursday during a unanimous 13-0 vote in favor of the drug, panel member John Mendelson, a senior scientist at the Friends Research Institute, said, "This is clearly a breakthrough drug for an awful disease."

The final decision on Epidiolex is currently slated for June 27. Notably, the drug contains only CBD, so there is no chance of getting users high.

"There's certainly demand for these products," Avicanna's Azadian said, "but we're still dealing with a strictly stigmatized industry."

SEE ALSO: Ketamine could be the new drug for depression that researchers have been looking for

Join the conversation about this story »

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Where you can watch all 18 movies in the Marvel Cinematic Universe before you see 'Infinity War'


Doctor Strange Cumberbatch Marvel

Not interested in a daylong Marvel Cinematic Universe marathon right before seeing "Avengers: Infinity War?"

We figured most people aren't but commend the brave souls who stick it out for every "Avengers" premiere.

To accommodate MCU fans who want to catch up at a more leisurely pace, we found out where all 18 movies in the MCU are streaming online so you can play catch-up before seeing "Infinity War," which is scheduled for release April 27.

Most movies in the MCU are available to rent on Amazon or iTunes, while a select few are on Netflix including "Doctor Strange" and "Captain America: Civil War," which is probably the most important movie to watch before seeing "Infinity War."

Here's where you can stream all 18 MCU movies before seeing "Infinity War":

SEE ALSO: All 53 movie and TV sequels or reboots coming out in 2018

Here are the titles available on Netflix:

"Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2"

"Doctor Strange"

"Captain America: Civil War"

And here's a title-by-title breakdown for the whole MCU. First up: Phase I

"Iron Man" — released May 2, 2008

Available to rent or purchase on iTunes, YouTube, Vudu, and Google Play.

See the rest of the story at Business Insider

Kardashian sisters are the latest victims of America's retail apocalypse


Kardashian sisters

  • Kim Kardashian announced Thursday that she and two of her sisters, Kourtney and Khloé, would be winding down operations of their DASH women's boutiques.
  • The company's two stores, in Los Angeles and Miami, will reportedly close June 1.
  • DASH has not confirmed whether its online store would also close.

The so-called retail apocalypse appears to be bearing down on the Kardashians.

On Thursday, Kim Kardashian-West announced on her website that she and her two sisters, Kourtney and Khloé, would be winding down operations of their DASH women's boutiques, which sell a mix of high-end brands and the company's own label collection.

"We've loved running DASH, but in the last few years, we've all grown so much individually. We've been busy running our own brands, as well as being moms and balancing work with our families. We know in our hearts that it's time to move on," Kim Kardashian said.

DASH did not immediately respond to Business Insider's request for comment and has not yet confirmed whether its online store would be closing.

The three sisters opened their first store in Calabasas, California, in 2006. It grew to have three locations in Los Angeles, Miami, and New York; the last closed in 2016.

Kim Kardashian described the news as "bittersweet."

Its website has not yet been updated and still says that there are "talks of major US and international expansion to follow." UK newspaper Metro confirmed that the two DASH stores would open for the last time on May 31.

It had been reported for some time that the three sisters struggled with the store. In a blog post written by Khloé Kardashian in 2016, she said: "We started DASH in 2006 and really struggled for a long time to make it a successful business—there were months we couldn’t pay our bills, and the store didn’t turn a profit for years."

Some consumers complained on social media that the store was too expensive:


Its own brand collection costs $40 for a plain T-shirt up to $65 for a sweatshirt with the DASH logo on it. Some of the pricier designers on its site are selling swimwear for as much as $576.

Other customers were surprised the store has lasted this long:

"I've never seen anyone on the face of this earth wear DASH," one Twitter user wrote.

SEE ALSO: The creators of Proactiv have a skincare company that uses an army of consultants to sell products — and it's suddenly the most popular in America

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NOW WATCH: The story behind Warren Buffett's million dollar charity lunches at Smith & Wollensky

The best way to find love in the modern world may be to approach dating like dieting


dinner date

  • Dating and dieting have a lot in common, according to Joanna Coles.
  • Coles is the former editor of Cosmo and Marie Claire magazines, the chief content officer at Hearst Magazines, and the author of the new book "Love Rules."
  • In the book, Coles shows readers how to identify the people who are standing between you and the love you want.
  • For example, Coles says your relationship with an ex is a kind of "junk love" that is best eliminated from your diet.

About midway through Joanna Coles' new guide to modern dating, "Love Rules," she offers an analogy between food and sex that will hit awfully close to home for many readers:

"In the same way you pick idly at chips promising this is literally your last one, you may be in a relationship that you know isn't going anywhere, but you're hungry for love, and it feels less frightening than nothing."


Coles is the former editor of Cosmopolitan and Marie Claire magazines; she's currently the chief content officer of Hearst Magazines.

"Love Rules" is premised on the idea that the best way to find love is to approach dating like dieting, which is to say intentionally, methodically, and with the willingness to tweak if something isn't working. Just as many health experts recommend keeping a food diary, Coles advises keeping a love journal, where you record your current habits and reflect on what it is you really want.

'Junk love' can be just as bad for you as junk food

The comparison between food and love may seem trite, but I found the parallels between junk food and what Coles labels "junk love" surprisingly compelling.

Coles uses a doughnut as a "metaphor for your ex — warm, sweet, familiar, and loaded with trans fats that clog the arteries and eventually lead to a blockage of the heart." When you sleep with said ex, Coles says, it's easy and temporarily gratifying — but it may also sabotage your chances of finding long-term love.

The point here is simple, at least in theory: Set a goal (whether that's finding long-term love or something else) and identify the obstacles preventing you from getting there. Maybe those obstacles are crunchy and salty; maybe they're texting you to "hang out" at 2 a.m. You can't cut out the waste until you see it clearly.

Coles also shares a valuable, if somewhat unconventional, exercise  that can help readers recognize their personal obstacles. She writes: "Make a list of all the people in your life and rate them in terms of energy in, energy out. Is there anyone in your life right now who is blocking your love quest?" Coles says it could just as well be an ex or a best friend who's especially judgmental.

With regards to the ever-present ex, Coles recommends "giving yourself a clean break" and "quitting, cold turkey." This, as anyone who's tried to quit an ex or a post-work snacking habit knows, can feel impossible.

But it's conceivable that simply being aware of your counterproductive habits — and being motivated to break them — is a big first step in actually ditching them.

SEE ALSO: The reason dating can be so frustrating is that most people look at it all wrong

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NOW WATCH: A psychologist explains how to tell if you're ready for a committed relationship

6 occasions when every man needs the perfect shoes


They say you can always tell a man by his shoes, which is true ... sort of.

The real indicator of a man's style savvy though isn't so much the shoes he chooses to wear, but which shoes he chooses to wear when. Sure, an expensive pair of polished Oxfords looks sharp with a tux, but teamed with a tee and jeans? Not so much.

To ensure you always get off on the right foot (pun intended), here's a guide to pairing the perfect shoes and outfit.


6occasionsguide formalwork

Bankers, lawyers, and other well-heeled professionals whose workplaces require a suit and tie need shoes that also mean business — and Paul Evans' Cagney cap-toe Oxfords are just the tools for the job. As Oxfords, their “closed" lacing design gives them an impeccably sleek and refined appearance that'll help you look every inch the model employee.


6occasionsguide bizcas

For those with less-rigid office dress codes, a business-casual shirt and slacks are perfectly complemented by a pair of shoes that are smart without being stuffy. The Brando semi-brogue Oxford, an expertly crafted hybrid of the traditional Oxford and the more decorative (read: casual) brogue, strikes a winning balance between easy going and office appropriate.


6occasionsguide datenight

Wooing a potential partner —no matter how short or long term — calls for a footwear style that's put-together enough to show that you've made an effort for your date, but not so formal that it suggests you've been furiously planning since you both swiped right.

For a look that's elevated, yet effortlessly cool, consider the Dean Chelsea boot. Not only is this suave style versatile — it's as good a fit with tailored separates as a tee and jeans — its elasticated paneling means it's as comfortable as smart footwear gets, too.


6occasionsguide wkendwear

Much like buttoning up a suit gets your head in the game on weekday mornings, winding down during the weekend means letting your wardrobe relax, too.

Hang up the suits, ties, and cufflinks come Friday evening and opt instead for easy separates like polo shirts, chinos, and quality denim. Follow through with your footwear too by swapping leather dress shoes for something more luxurious like the McQueen driving loafers crafted from plush suede. Whether you're eating brunch or cruising country roads, nothing beats these shoes' slip-on ease and exceptional softness.


6occasionsguide travel

Got a plane to catch? Then you'll need to lace up footwear made for high mileage. With their second-skin comfort and unmatched maneuverability, sneakers are the perfect choice for flights, train rides, and exploring by foot on action-packed city breaks.

Take Paul Evans' Carter mid-tops, for example: Their durable soles are crafted from the finest Italian leather to make getting from point A to B a breeze. The slick styling is a natural companion to luxe loungewear, and also means they won't look out of place with a shirt and tailored trousers.


6occasionsguide wedding

Attending a wedding means pulling out all the sartorial stops — even if you're not the groom. Whether black tie, white tie, or simply formal, you'll want to spare no expense in looking your best, while also meeting the demands of the dress code.

When it comes to your shoes however, one style fits all: a pair of classic Oxfords. Sophisticated and timelessly stylish, Paul Evans' Martin wholecut Oxford— cut from a single piece of flawless leather — is everything a special occasion shoe should be. Teamed with a tuxedo or suit, this style is a true showstopper. But try not to upstage the groom.

Find more styles from Paul Evans.

This post is sponsored by Paul Evans.

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Google wants to replace texting


Google Pixel 2 XL

  • Google is leading a group that's supporting a new universal standard for text messaging.
  • The current standard, SMS, is limited in many ways; Apple's iMessage solved those limitations, and now Google is playing catch-up with Android.
  • The new standard is named RCS, or rich communication services. It will be deployed in Google's own Messages app on Android, the default Android text-messaging app.
  • Other major Android phone makers like Samsung, Huawei, and HTC are signed on as well.

Google is making a major change to the way Android handles text messages, and it's a direct attempt to stay competitive with Apple's iMessage dominance.

Google's Messages app — the standard text-messaging app on Android — will become "Chat," according to The Verge. With that change comes the ability to send prettier photos, longer messages, and lots of other "rich" interactivity.

As it is now, Android uses standard SMS text messaging, which is limited to a certain number of characters, and multimedia (photos, video) is highly compressed (it looks bad).

With Google Chat, Android text messaging will become much more like Apple's beloved iMessage.

iPhone X Animojis

All these new features in Android text messaging are due to the adoption of RCS, or rich communications services, a new standard for text messaging. In short, the RCS standard operates on data networks (like Apple's iMessage) instead of phone networks (like traditional SMS text messaging).

Moreover, Google has a bunch of big phone makers signed on to RCS — from Samsung to LG to Huawei and HTC.

If someone on a Pixel sends a message to a Samsung Galaxy S9, for instance, they can share "RCS" messages — theoretically, anyway, as Samsung is one of the companies that's signed on. And if you try sending a message and the other person's phone doesn't support RCS? They'll receive it as a standard SMS message (similarly to iMessages showing up for Android users as SMS messages).

For now, Apple isn't signed on to support RCS messaging: No, the iPhone will not support these messages. At least not for now. Also of note: RCS messages aren't as secure as iMessages; there's no "end to end" encryption, which prevents communications from being intercepted by third parties.

The changes to Android text messaging are coming in the next year, according to The Verge.

Join the conversation about this story »

NOW WATCH: Dropbox CEO talks about how he went from rejecting Steve Jobs to an $11 billion IPO

This map shows every state that has legalized marijuana


BI Graphics_legal marijuana map 2018

  • Recreational marijuana is legal in nine states and medical marijuana is legal in 29 states.
  • A 2017 Gallup poll showed that 64% of Americans support legalization.
  • Marijuana enthusiasts will light up on April 20, a marijuana holiday also known as 420.


On April 20, many Americans who smoke marijuana — from California to Maine to Alaska — will light up legally in celebration of "420," an unofficial marijuana holiday.

Nine states and Washington, DC, have legalized marijuana for recreational use — no doctor's letter required — for adults over the age of 21. Medical marijuana is legal in another 29 states.

In January, Vermont became the first state to legalize marijuana through the legislature, rather than a ballot initiative, when the governor signed the bill into law.

Marijuana prohibition began 80 years ago when the federal government put a ban on the sale, cultivation, and use of the cannabis plant. It remains illegal on the federal level.

Despite the efforts of Attorney General Jeff Sessions, who has been on a crusade to stamp out legal marijuana since his appointment, the industry is exploding.

Legal marijuana sales exploded to $9.7 billion in North America in 2017, according to a report from Arcview Market Research and BDS Analytics. That represents a 33% increase over 2016, shattering previous expectations about how quickly the marijuana industry could grow in the face of federal prohibition.

The report also predicted the legal marijuana market will reach $24.5 billion in sales — a 28% annual compound growth rate — by 2021, as more state-legal markets come online.

Support for marijuana legalization reached new highs in 2017. A Gallup poll showed that 64% of Americans favor legalization, and a majority of Republicans back it for the first time.

SEE ALSO: We went inside the best marijuana shop in America — here's what it was like

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NOW WATCH: Legal marijuana may have several health benefits

There are red flags all over MoviePass' financial statements that should scare investors (HMNY)


moviepass business insider

  • MoviePass' owner, Helios and Matheson Analytics, has been losing $20 million a month on average since September, it said in a prospectus filed this week.
  • Erik Gordon, a professor at the University of Michigan's Ross School of Business, said the fine print in the company's financials, including a warning from its auditor, would scare away many investors.
  • Back-to-back financial statements filed by the company this week also include a discrepancy in numbers. When asked about the difference, MoviePass said its prospectus included an error that would be corrected.
  • "I think 12 months from now if the company is still around, it's in a very different form than we see it today," Gordon said.

It has been a terrible week for investors in MoviePass' owner, Helios and Matheson Analytics.

On Tuesday, the company's auditor raised "substantial doubt" about its ability to stay in business over the next year (in what is known as a "going concern" statement). On Wednesday, the company said it was going to sell more shares to raise funds. On Thursday, it said it sold those shares at a steep discount from their latest price in the market.

The stock was trading at about $2.38 early on Friday. That's down over 50% from the stock's highest price this week, and it's below what Helios and Matheson's newest investors agreed to pay for the shares.

There's reason to expect things to get worse, according to a University of Michigan business professor who reviewed the latest financial statements with Business Insider.

A few key aspects of the filings jump out. In its prospectus for the share sale, dated Wednesday, MoviePass said it had $42 million in cash and equivalents as of March but also that it had been burning through about $20 million a month on average since September — what it calls a "cash deficit."

This explains the need for more fundraising, and the warning that it would need to keep raising money, even after it raised nearly $30 million this week.

But the company also warned that its figures may not be correct.

Helios and Matheson said in its prospectus that its "internal control over financial reporting was not effective as of December 31, 2017." The company said this was due to a lack of "sufficient accounting resources" to review its "various complex and significant transactions," including the acquisition of MoviePass.

'It's scary'

"A complex financial structure with a cash-losing business, it's scary," Erik Gordon, a clinical assistant professor at the University of Michigan's Ross School of Business, told Business Insider. "It's clear they can bring people in — it's not clear they can make any money."

To Gordon, though, none of this is as bad as the auditor's warning to investors in its annual report Tuesday that "recurring losses from operations and negative cash flows from operating activities" gave it "substantial doubt about the Company's ability to continue as a going concern."

"If other attributes of the company hadn't already scared away potential lenders and investors, that caveat will scare some group away," Gordon said. "Not all, but there will be some who can't even look at it with that."

On Tuesday, Helios and Matheson's CEO, Ted Farnsworth, downplayed the significance of the "going concern" warning to Business Insider, saying the term was in "pretty much most" 10-K filings when a company is running at a loss. "If they don't raise money, they could go out of business," Farnsworth said.

Gordon said that wasn't true, noting that companies such as Tesla and Blue Apron, which are making losses, do not include such statements.

Screen Shot 2018 04 20 at 10.03.25 AM

"The 'going concern' caveat is very serious," he said. "It's not just because you're making losses — it's because you're making losses and your auditor is concerned that you can't continue to finance the operation of the company."

Farnsworth told Business Insider in an email through his spokeswoman on Friday that the company had going-concern warnings in its previous 10-K filings. It's true, but in its 2016 report—just a year ago — the company told investors it had addressed the risk.

The acquisition of MoviePass has brought the issue back.

Losing money on every customer

Since MoviePass dropped its subscription price to $9.95 a month last summer, which allows members to see one movie a day in theaters, it has attracted over 2 million subscribers, according to the company. But this growth could actually be causing MoviePass to lose more money, since it still has to pay most theaters the full price of every ticket its customers buy with the app.

"MoviePass currently spends more to retain a subscriber than the revenue derived from that subscriber," Helios and Matheson wrote in its annual report.

That means MoviePass relies on money from investors or lenders. The company recently told Variety that MoviePass CEO Mitch Lowe and Farnsworth had, since last summer, together raised $280 million and secured a $375 million line of credit to fund the business. A spokeswoman confirmed this was accurate to Business Insider on Friday.

For his efforts, Farnsworth has been paid well. In its annual report, Helios and Matheson said total compensation for Farnsworth was $8.9 million (in cash and stock) in 2017, including a $1 million cash bonus "for his efforts in bringing capital sources that have been critical to the Company's needs during 2017."

Going forward, MoviePass hopes to build its revenue through selling ads on Moviefone, which it recently acquired; teaming with distribution companies on movies, like its deal with The Orchard to take the North American rights for "American Animals," a heist movie that premiered at the Sundance Film Festival in January; and making deals for discounted tickets with theater chains, like a recent one with Landmark.

Shaking up the industry

Despite the questions about its financials, there is no doubt that MoviePass is shaking up the industry. It has become a force in the US box office, buying at least 1 million tickets to "Black Panther" alone, as of late March.

But even here Helios and Matheson's filings raise a question. In the firm's annual report filed Tuesday, Helios and Matheson said MoviePass represented approximately 6.1% of the US box office. But in its prospectus for investors dated a day later, it said MoviePass represented approximately 4.8%.

The second number was wrong, Farnsworth told Business Insider on Friday.

"The 6.1% is correct," he said in the email through a spokeswoman. "The 4.8% was an old number that was never changed. We'll be making that correction. This 6.1% is also on average — there is a lot of movies that MoviePass does between 10-25% of box office sales when we promote it through the app."

But Gordon said an error in a prospectus could mean trouble for MoviePass.

"The potential liability for a material misstatement in a prospectus is high," he said.

So, with all of this on the table, will MoviePass be around next year?

"I think 12 months from now, if the company is still around, it's in a very different form than we see it today," Gordon said.

SEE ALSO: The 20 most popular TV characters in the world

Join the conversation about this story »

NOW WATCH: How all-you-can-eat restaurants don't go bankrupt

I never thought I'd hire a wedding planner, but it was the best decision I made



  • Wedding planning can be stressful — no matter how organized you or your family may be.
  •  A wedding planner can help you meet deadlines, make informed decisions, and ensure your wedding day is as special as possible.
  • I have no regrets about paying extra for a wedding planner — here's why.


My husband and I weren't looking for a luxurious wedding. We had generous contributions from both sets of parents, but we wanted to spend our money on tangibles that our guests would enjoy: food, beverages, and a venue with a great dance floor. The idea of hiring a wedding planner seemed crazy.

I'd always thought of a wedding planner as a tool for the wealthy bridezilla. It wasn't until after a week or so of scouring wedding forums that I had a change of heart. One thing that everyone on the internet seemed to agree on was that not only were wedding planners an invaluable part of the wedding experience, but they were also more affordable than I'd anticipated.

So I went ahead and hired a wedding planner for our wedding, and it was one of the best decisions I've ever made. Here's why you should consider it, too.

What our wedding planner handled

There are multiple tiers to wedding planning, from full-on planning to day-of logistics. We only hired a day-of planner, and our package included the following:

  • Three one-hour planning meetings
  • Six hours of services the day before
  • 16 hours the day of
  • Two planners on-site for the rehearsal and wedding

Starting about 10 months before the wedding, our planners kept us on track with a list of goals to meet each month. We knew when we needed to send out save the dates cards, finalize vendor contracts, and book honeymoon flights. They took care of everything, ranging from the important issues to the smallest of details.

As the big day grew closer, my partner and I realized that we had a potential problem: Our beloved beagle would be stuck at the kennel during the hours of our pre-ceremony photos. It was really important to us to have her present for our wedding, but all of our friends and family were unable to pick her up, as they'd be at venue with us.

Our  planners saved the day by arranging for  a friend of theirs pick up our dog from the kennel and drop her off at the venue. Then, someone else came to pick her up after the photos were done. Every time I see a wedding picture of us with our sweet pup, I remember how amazing it was to have her there.

Our wedding rehearsal ran smoothly due to the careful planning and foresight of our wedding planners. They ran minor errands that relieved us of stress, such as picking up the flowers for our centerpieces and arranging them on the tables. They told us exactly where to stand and when to enter and exit during the ceremony. Our officiant couldn't make it to the rehearsal, so they filled him in before the wedding.

The planners also ensured that my wedding day was as stress-free as possible. On the day of the wedding, a few guests were locked out before the ceremony because our venue had a gate with a special access code. The planners went down there and relayed the code to those who were stuck outside. Without them, some guests would have missed the ceremony entirely.

Why I have no regrets about paying extra for a planner

No matter how organized you, your family, or your bridesmaids are, you'll never be able to stay on top of everything the way a wedding planner can. After all, they're professionals! I was amazed at all of the little tasks they assisted with, like helping my bridesmaids steam their dresses or packing up all the cards and gifts at the end of the night.

Though these details seem trivial, without our planners, the burden would have fallen on my mother or mother-in-law. Instead, everyone got to relax and enjoy the evening.

I was lucky. Our planners only cost $650, though I know they have since raised their rates significantly since our 2015 wedding. According to Angie's List, the average cost of a day-of planner is $1,500, and a full-service planner costs more than $5,000.

I regret certain aspects about our wedding, such as not having enough pie for our guests, but I've never regretted hiring a wedding planner.

SEE ALSO: What the average wedding budget looks like in America, from the engagement ring to the wedding dress to the venue

Join the conversation about this story »

NOW WATCH: How all-you-can-eat restaurants don't go bankrupt

Shorter, high-intensity workouts offer the same benefits as longer, moderate ones — here's how to get started and how it could transform your body


workout fitness exercise boxing

  • High-intensity workouts are some of the best ways to improve health and athletic performance.
  • With a short, intense interval workout, researchers have found that some people see benefits equal to or better than those from conventional exercise routines.
  • Here's how to get started.

If you want to make the most of a short span of time for working out, consider a high-intensity workout.

With brief bouts of high-intensity interval training, it's possible to achieve or even exceed the physical benefits that people get from spending much longer periods of time working out.

"Time is everything for people," Jason Barone, a clinical director at an organization called Professional Physical Therapypreviously told Business Insider"High-intensity training is kind of perfect for the busy schedule — you don't need a gym, you can do it at your home, you're looking at about a 20- to 30-minute workout."

When Barone and other trainers talk about high-intensity workouts, a number of activities qualify. The basic idea is that people work out at close to full-on intensity for short periods of time instead of doing longer workouts at more moderate, 50-70% exertion levels. Some of these workouts include short sprints, some involve circuits of body-weight exercises, and others use weights or kettlebells.

High-intensity training is not always better than a more traditional exercise routine. There are good reasons to do longer workouts — they can help your body adapt to achieve certain fitness goals, such as preparing your joints and muscles for the strain of a long race like a marathon. But intense workouts are often the best way for athletes to improve performance.

They can have powerful effects on health too, helping people rev up metabolism to burn fat, lower blood pressure, and more.

Here's why you might want to give high-intensity training a try — and what you can do to get started.

SEE ALSO: A world-record holder who runs 100-mile races says the high-fat diet Silicon Valley loves transformed his body and performance

Even extremely small amounts of all-out effort — just one minute — can have powerful effects on overall fitness.

In one small study published in 2016, researchers had a group of men do workouts consisting of three 20-second bursts of all-out exertion, with some warm-up, cool-down, and rest in between sets. The results suggested those participants' fitness levels improved as much as those of men who worked out for 45 minutes at moderate intensity.

Both groups showed almost a 20% gain in one measurement of the body's ability to use oxygen — called VO2 peak — which the authors use to represent cardiorespiratory fitness. There was also a dramatic improvement in how all participants' bodies handled blood sugar. The men in both groups also had a dramatically increased mitochondrial count in their muscles, a sign of good cellular function.

The difference is that one group got their workouts done much more quickly.

Various studies have shown that high-intensity interval workouts can lead to big improvements in blood-sugar levels.

One review of research found that people who start doing high-intensity workout programs can improve insulin sensitivity by 23-58%. The studies analyzed in that review ranged from two to 16 weeks long.

Insulin sensitivity helps people's bodies regulate blood sugar levels. Researchers think high-intensity training plays a role because the regimen improves the ability of muscles to take up glucose from blood so those muscles can be ready to jump into action.

High-intensity workouts might be the best way to improve blood pressure.

Several studies have found that after 12 to 16 weeks of high-intensity training programs, people at risk of hypertension showed significant improvements in arterial stiffness (which leads to high blood pressure).

These high-intensity programs were more effective for improving that stiffness than conventional exercise routines.

See the rest of the story at Business Insider

Silicon Valley's favorite veggie burger is about to hit a wave of controversy — but scientists say it's bogus


impossible foods plant based burger 6

  • A handful of recent stories cite potential red flags about the safety of the Impossible Burger, a vegetarian patty made by Silicon Valley startup Impossible Foods, which has backing from Bill Gates.
  • At the heart of the issue appears to be the company's use of both genetically modified ingredients and a special nutrient called heme. The US Food and Drug Administration has also flagged the latter ingredient, saying it's too "new" to give it a stamp of approval.
  • Business Insider dug into the scientific research on the ingredients. Studies suggest there is no cause for concern.

Today's veggie burgers can be described with a handful of delicious-sounding adjectives, but "meaty" isn't one of them.

At least it wasn't — until Silicon Valley startup Impossible Foods began creating a meat-free burger designed to reduce waste that tastes disturbingly close to the real thing. The meat-like flavor can largely be attributed to an ingredient called heme — the magic spark that even allows the Impossible Burger to "bleed" like a real burger does.

But that magic spark may be poised to ignite a fire.

In a handful of articles posted recently in places like Bloomberg, Food and Wine, and Inc., people raised two main concerns over the heme in Impossible Foods' burger: First, it is made using genetic engineering, meaning the burger is technically produced with GMOs. Second, some have stated that there could be a link between heme and cancer.

Business Insider spoke with a variety of scientists who hail from distinct backgrounds and research institutions. They say there's no need for concern with regards to either ingredient, citing evidence like a large 2013 review on GMOs which found the ingredients safe to eat. In addition, they've pointed out that the research currently being used as evidence of the link between heme and cancer actually found a connection between red meat and the disease, not heme alone.

But the US Food and Drug Administration seems to be singing to a different tune. So far, the agency has said the ingredient is too "new" to give it a stamp of approval, a caveat that some suggest could block future innovations in the food tech space.

Here's what you need to know.

Heme, the essential nutrient you've never heard of

impossible foods burgerHeme is an essential nutrient in many proteins. It's also in just about every living thing on Earth. In our bodies, heme can be found tucked inside of a molecule in our blood called hemoglobin. Heme helps ferry oxygen throughout the body, carries iron, and colors our blood red. For most of us, the majority of the heme we consume comes from animals.

But soy roots also contain heme — and that's where Impossible Foods gets theirs.

Still, soy roots only produce a tiny amount of heme, which initially presented Impossible Foods with a problem: They'd need to harvest roughly an acre's worth of soy plants just to get a kilogram of heme.

Yeast saves the day, but at a cost

Instead of doing that, Impossible Foods founder and CEO Pat Brown figured out the company could trick yeast into making heme for them by tweaking its DNA.

The idea of genetically engineering yeast to make other ingredients is not new or rare. Insulin, the compound that diabetics' life depends on to regulate blood sugar levels, is manufactured using GM yeast.

impossible foods burger 0342Drugs, beer, and perfume can all be made using yeast as tiny manufacturing powerhouses.

Because they are made with genetically modified yeast, all of these products are also technically GMOs, which have become increasingly unpopular in recent years despite scientists' repeated assertions that they are safe.

Organizations like the National Academy of Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the European Commission have publicly said genetically modified foods are safe to eat. A large 2013 study on GMOs found no "significant hazards directly connected with the use of genetically engineered crops."

Several experts say the "GMO" label does a disservice to the millions of products — some of them life-saving — made with genetically modified ingredients. The process of genetic modification is a breeding method, much like other recent advances in agriculture.

"What are we labeling here, DNA?" Alison Van Eenennaam, a professor of animal genomics at the University of California at Davis, recently told Business Insider. "There's DNA in everything, so good luck with that."

Heme and the 'C' word

BaconThe Impossible Burger isn't suddenly controversial just because of GMOs.

Some journalists have also been discussing a potential link between heme and cancer. According to scientists, however, no such link exists.

In an article published in Food and Wine magazine in March, the author wrote that "excessive" heme consumption had been linked to colon and prostate cancer, citing a 2012 blog post in the New York Times.

That assertion appears to be based on the plethora of studies linking red meat — where most Americans get the majority of the heme they ingest — and colorectal cancer. (According to the American Institute for Cancer Research and the World Health Organization, there is a strong link between red meat, especially processed meat, and cancer. The type of cancer with the strongest link is colorectal cancer, a type of the disease that begins in the colon or rectum.)

But no such link appears to exist for heme alone and cancer — potentially because the amount of heme you'd have to consume to reach "excessive" levels would be prohibitively high.

"Considering how much heme we are eating in red meat, I do not see any health issues arising" from putting it in a vegetarian burger, Nicolai Lehnert, a professor of chemistry and biophysics at the University of Michigan, told Business Insider.

Robert Kranz, a professor of biology at Washington State University in St. Louis who's studied heme extensively, said people should not be worried about consuming heme — regardless of where it comes from — because it is an essential nutrient found in animals, plants, and bacteria.

"Heme has therefore been consumed by humans and other animals for a long time with no issues," Kranz told Business Insider.

Studies that have attempted to isolate heme and study its link to cancer separate from red meat have also come up empty-handed, either finding no link or finding a negative one.

In a 2012 study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition that involved a sample of nearly 90,000 men and women, researchers found no tie between heme iron intake and colorectal cancer.

"Our results ... suggest that zinc and heme iron intakes are not associated with colorectal cancer," the researchers wrote.

Iqbal Hamza, a professor of cell biology and genetics at the University of Maryland who runs a lab dedicated to the study of heme and is working on a heme-based supplement for iron-deficient people in developing countries, similarly concluded that the ingredient was perfectly safe for human consumption.

"I would have no qualms about getting heme from the Impossible Foods burger and I would have no qualms about getting heme from a plant based source," Hamza told Business Insider.

A 2011 study published in the journal Cancer Causes and Control also examined a large group of people in an attempt to suss out links between heme and cancer. They found none. In fact, they found a slightly negative relationship between the two things, meaning that people who consumed more heme were actually less likely to develop cancer.

The team behind Impossible Foods agrees.

"It's not a lack of evidence [linking heme to cancer]. There's evidence. And the evidence is for safety," David Lipman, Impossible Foods chief science officer, told Business Insider.

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Netflix has rejected showing its movies at some willing theaters, and Hollywood insiders don't understand why (NFLX)


Mudbound Steve Dietl Netflix final

  • Netflix briefly considered acquiring Landmark Theatres, according to the Los Angeles Times.
  • The move would have allowed the streaming giant to get their prestige titles better award seasons consideration.
  • However, numerous sources told Business Insider that Netflix has the opportunity to screen its movies at more theaters but has declined some offers.

It seems that, for at least a fleeting moment, Netflix was interested in buying movie theaters that would play its movies on the big screen.

According to the Los Angeles Times, the streaming giant “explored” the idea of acquiring Landmark Theatres, the 53-theater chain with locations in New York, Los Angeles, Denver, and San Francisco (among others).

Netflix eventually decided the price was too high, according to the paper (a source familiar with the situation confirmed to Business Insider that Netflix is not buying Landmark). But the news has puzzled many in the movie theater community because for years Netflix has been playing a cat-and-mouse game with exhibitors, especially arthouses.

On one hand, Netflix paints itself as the ultimate Hollywood disrupter — releasing movies simultaneously across the world on its streaming service, from blockbusters to award-season bait. However, on the other hand, Netflix craves prestige from Hollywood and wants its movies to be recognized with multiple Oscar nominations, just like how its TV shows are received by the Emmys.

But the big problem is movie theaters still hold some strong cards. Specifically, no movie can receive Oscar consideration unless it plays in movie theaters in New York and Los Angeles for a specific time. Because Netflix rarely gives its moves theatrical releases, and when it does they are "day-and-date" (playing in theaters when the movies are already streaming), the major movie chains refuse to show them.

This hasn’t stopped Netflix from getting acclaimed documentaries recognized (Netflix’s documentary “Icarus” recently won the best documentary Oscar), but when it comes to its narrative titles they are all but ignored. The acclaimed “Mudbound” received four nominations at this year’s Oscars, but none were for any of the major categories.

AMC theaterSo Netflix considering buying its own movie theaters to show its titles makes sense.

“They are looking for awards to boost subscription revenue and buying a theater chain would potentially allow them greater access to awards through key theatrical runs in target markets,” a source who works in exhibition told Business Insider.

However, some in the business are wondering why they just don’t play on more arthouse screens.

“Wouldn’t it be infinitely cheaper to just exhibit their movies like everyone else?” asked one source.

Despite the major multiplexes like AMC and Cinemark blocking Netflix movies because it does day-and-date, independent theaters want them.

Multiple sources in the arthouse community told Business Insider that Netflix has refused theaters that have asked to show its movies. Alamo Drafthouse, which has screened Netflix titles in the past, asked to screen “Mudbound” and Netflix declined, according to numerous sources.

“Netflix has specifically chosen not to make its films available,” a source said.

And there’s another reason why Netflix may have decided owning theaters wasn’t worth it: They would have finally have had to reveal to the public how their titles perform.

“Netflix movies do not report their grosses through comScore, which would likely have to end if they owned a theater company,” one industry source said. “It would look very bad for Netflix movies to underperform against traditional releases in their own theaters.”

Netflix declined to comment for this story.

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